Sacchini, Antonio (1734–1786): Composer, student of Durante and Guglielmi; 1774 in Munich and Stuttgart, 1772–82 in London, then Paris. Composer of French operas (Dardanus 1784, Oedipe à Colone, 1786), oratorios, chamber music.
Sachs, Hans (1494–1576): Writer, by trade a shoemaker, eventually settling in Nürnberg after a period as an itinerant journeyman. Prolific writer primarily of Meisterlieder (a form of poetry set to music and sung solo by members of the guilds of Meistersinger), fables, anecdotes, verse stories, and verse plays combining homespun simplicity with keen powers of observation. Though Sachs’s work was not valued in the seventeenth century, Goethe’s poem Hans Sachsens poetische Sendung (1776) helped popularize him again. (Portrait: Leopold Hugo Bürkner, in Zweihundert deutsche Männer in Bildnissen und Lebensbeschreibungen, ed. Ludwig Bechstein [Leipzig 1854], unpaginated [alphabetical] entry on Hans Sachs.)
Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenacht, Karl Friedrich von (1783–1853): Son of Duke Karl August and Luise of Weimar. From 3 August 1804 married to Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Czar Paul I. (Portrait: by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein; Klassik Stiftung Weimar.)
Sade, Donatien-Alphonse-Françis, Comte (Marquis) de (1740–1814): French author of licentious and obscene writings that prompted the term “sadism.” Condemned to death as a criminal but pardoned ca. 1772. Wrote while in prison. Freed during the Revolution, which he then zealously supported, though Napoleon later had him confined for mental disorders after de Sade’s writings offended him.
Sailer, Johann Michael (17 November 1751–20 May 1832): Bavarian Roman Catholic theologian and Jesuit. From 1780 professor in Ingolstadt, 1784–94 professor of moral and pastoral theology in Dillingen. Variously criticized for engaging in excessive rationalism, false mysticism, he eventuallyt lost his position; also attacked for his connections with the Awakening Movement. Finally 1800–21 professor in Landshut, where he advocated a form of Christianity that sought to overcome Enlightenment thinking and that viewed scholasticism critically. From 1829 bishop of Regensburg. (Portrait: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Universitätsarchiv.)
Saint-Germain, Le Comte de: An otherwise unidentified, apparently wealthy adventurer who ingratiated himself at the court of Louis XV, claiming to have lived in previous centuries and to having access to occult information.
Salat, Jakob (1766–1851): Catholic Bavarian theologian and philosopher. Became acquainted with Enlightenment philosophy in secondary school. After various pastorates and accusations of associations with the Illuminati (1798, 1801), became professor of moral and pastoral theology at the lyceum in Munich, continuing also to work as a pastor in Arnbach. From 1807 professor of philosophy in Landshut, where he encountered harsh criticism from followers of Schelling but was nonetheless in good standing with the Bavarian administration. Following a path consistent with Enlightenment thinking, he opposed contemporary inclinations toward supernaturalism and obscurantism, always trying to focus on a reconciliation between reason and revelation.
Salvator Rosa (1615–1673): Italian Baroque painter, poet, printmaker. Salvator lived a colorful, even exciting life, often in trouble for the satires he also published; his rebellious, independent streak is often cited in that regard. Perhaps best known for his haunting landscapes, overgrown with vegetation, or his jagged beaches, mountains, and caves, works that are often brooding and melancholic, featuring ruins, brigands, shepherds, seamen, or soldiers. Rosa was among the first to paint “romantic” or “picturesque” landscapes in this sense.
Salzmann, Johann Friedemann Gottfried (1745–1815): attorney in Jena, lived at Unterm Markt 2. Represented Fichte in the latter’s attempt to liquidate his house, and in July 1803, Schiller gave him complete power of attorney over his affairs.
Sand, George (Amandinwe-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, Baronne Dudevant (1804–76): French novelist, though also wrote for the theater and autobiographical pieces; also noted for her various liaisons (including with Frédéric Chopin) and unconventional views and lifestyle.
Sander, Johann Daniel (1759–1825): Bookseller, writer. A native of Magdeburg, Sander studied theology in Halle till 1780, thereafter working as a teacher in Berlin and 1785–89 as editor of the Berliner Zeitung, then as an advisor, representative, and ultimately partner in the Voss bookseller’s firm, in the latter capacity also carrying on a lively correspondence with Carl August Böttiger, who at the time was director of the Weimar Gymnasium. From 1794 married to Sophie, née Diederichs. Sander became independent in 1798 through the purchase of the Wever publishing company, in which capacity he published the works of August von Kotzebue; although Goethe mocked him as Kotzebue’s publisher, Sander and his wife, Sophie, maintained a cordial relationship with Goethe, Sander even doing final proofs of some of Goethe’s works. When Kotzebue left Weimar in indignation in 1802 and moved to Berlin, Sander, who had already published Kotzebue’s Das merkwürdigste Jahr meines Lebens (2 vols., 1801), also became the publisher, printer, and co-editor of the periodical Der Freimüthige. A friend and publisher of the writer August Lafontaine, Sander was also a member of the Wednesday Society in Berlin (in which Marcus Herz lectured) and published novels and stories himself and translated Charles Perrault’s fairy tales. Also active as a musician in Berlin, adapting several operas for the Berlin stage.
Sander, Sophie, née Diederichs (1768–1828): Berlin salon hostess. From 1794 married to the publisher Johann Daniel Sander. From 1800 to 1810 her salon was an important social and intellectual gathering place in Berlin, she allegedly being a charming and deft conversationalist herself and a tactful hostess; its visitors included the Humboldt brothers, Heinrich von Kleist, Karl August Böttiger, Friedrich Schlegel, Clemens Brentano, Wilhelm Schlegel, Goethe, and Jean Paul. Corresponded with, among others, Heinrich von Kleist, Johann Gottfried Herder, and the latter’s wife, Karoline. Sophie Sander was allegedly the fictitious recipient of Garlieb Merkel’s Briefe an ein Frauenzimmer über die neuesten Produkte der schönen Literatur in Teutschland.
Sappho Greek lyric poetess. Lived on the island of Lesbos ca. 600 B.C.E. Numerous fragments but only one complete text of her poems have been preserved. Her poems are almost all of a personal nature, with little reference to mythological material (and then only to illustrate personal material), and characterized by the expression of feelings, emotions, and experiences. She openly praises the beauty of the young girls to whom she was close and passionately affirms her inclinations for them.
Sartorius, Georg (1766–1828): Professor of history in Göttingen. From 1783 student in Göttingen, from 1786 librarian, from 1792 lecturer, from 1794 senior librarian, from 1797 associate professor, from 1802 full professor, from 1814 also of political science, attending the Congress of Vienna in the same year at the request of the grand duke of Weimar. Widely traveled (in 1791, 1803, 1812) in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Italy. A long-time acquaintance of Goethe (who was godfather to his son) and the first German scholar to popularize Adam Smith’s book Wealth of Nations in Germany. In 1806 purchased the estate in Waltershausen from the von Kalb family, under whose financial mismanagement it had fallen into disrepair. He was ennobled by King Ludwig of Bavaria in 1827.
Savigny, Friedrich Karl von (1779–1861): Professor of law, brother-in-law of Clemens and Bettina Brentano. Studied law in Marburg 1795–99 (one semester in Göttingen), where he formed lasting relationships with the Grimm brothers and the circle of Romantics around the Brentano family. Received in doctorate in 1800, after which his first book, Das Recht des Besitzes (1803) instantly established his reputation in legal circles. From 1802 professor of law in Marburg, then traveled around Europe, from 1808 professor in Landshut, from 1810 in Berlin. Married Kunigunde Brentano in 1805. A distinguished professor who eventually was appointed to the Prussian State Council and is often viewed as the founder of historical jurisprudence in Germany.
Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg, Emil Leopold August (1772–1822): Second son of Duke Ernst II of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg; from 1804 penultimate head of state of that duchy. His pro-French stance proved advantageous during the Napoleonic wars, and in 1806 the duchy joined the Confederation of the Rhine.
Scarpa, Antonio (1752–1832): From 1783 till 1804 professor of anatomy at the university in Pavia; dismissed for refusing oaths to the new king of Italy, namely, Napoleon, who, however, restored him to his former position in 1805.
Schad, Johann Baptist (1758–1834): Philosopher. Born to strict Catholic parents who instilled a disinclination in him toward those who were of other faiths (he found it difficult to mention Luther’s name even after converting to Protestantism later). At the age of ten, he enrolled in a Benedictine monastery school to prepare for the priesthood, began studying under Jesuits in Bamberg at fourteen, becoming a novice at twenty and was also immediately disappointed at what he thought was rampant hypocrisy in the order. Engaged in extensive philosophical reading and was especially attracted to Kant. By 1788 he had become vocal opponent of monasticism, publishing against it and, though protected by some ecclesiastical authorities, also being subjected to personal abuse in the order. When his authorship of a particularly biting satire became known and he began fearing for his life, he escaped the monastery one night. One way of eluding his pursuers was to convert to Protestantism, which he also found more to his own convictions. Much like Karl Leonhard Reinhold, the Kantian, he became a professor of philosophy, championing the developments which Fichte had brought about in Kantianism, introducing himself to Fichte in Jena as well. After Fichte’s departure, he became a lecturer in Jena, becoming a professor in 1802 and continuing to lecture on Fichte’s system (Fichte regarded him as one of the few or even the only scholar who genuinely understood his system) and later shifting to Schelling’s philosophy. His presence at Jena after Fichte’s departure, however, made it difficult for Schelling to establish himself the way he would have liked. From 1804 professor at the Russian university in Charkow, though in 1816 he was expelled from Russia for offensive passages in his publications. Although he returned to Jena, things went badly. He had lost considerable money upon expulsion from Russia because of his wife’s debts and began drinking heavily in Jena, a habit he had picked up in Russia. (Portrait: F. W. Nettling; frontispiece to Johann Baptist Schad, Lebens- und Klostergeschichte, von ihm selbst beschrieben [Erfurt 1803].)
Schadow, Johann Gottfried (1764–1850): Sculptor and graphic artist. A Berlin native, he received his early training there under the Prussian court sculptor Tassaert before leaving Berlin suddenly in 1785 with Marianne Devidels, a Jewess who had converted to Catholicism and married her in Rome after converting to Catholicism himself. After some training in Italy, he returned to Berlin, converted back to Protestantism, and in 1788 succeeded Tassaert as head of the royal sculpture workshop. He quickly acquired numerous important commissions and laid the foundations for the Berlin school of classicism in sculpture. Patronized by FriedrichWilhelm II, whose statue in Stettin he created, he also created the famous quadriga and other decorations for the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. He also did the famous double piece depicting the Prussian princesses Luise and Friederike. From 1805 rector, from 1815 director of the Berlin Academy of the Arts. From about 1800, however, he came into conflict with the emergent Romantic movement in the arts as represented not least by his own pupils, including Friedrich Tieck, which increasingly displaced the earlier classicistic, naturalist mode, especially after the death of Friedrich Wilhelm II in 1797, Schadow’s patron. Schadow eventually turned his energies more to the graphic arts, also becoming an accomplished caricaturist, though his Luther monument in Wittenberg was unveiled in 1821. Schelling tells an anecdote according to which Schadow insulted Goethe at a meeting in Weimar by immediately asking if he might take head measurements for a bust (see letter 371h). (Portrait: self-portrait.)
Schäffer, Jacob Christian (1718–1790): Polymath, Protestant theologian (doctorate in Tübingen in 1763), church superintendent, botanist, mycologist, entomologist, and researcher into questions of electricity and the theory of colors and optics, conceived and produced a prototype washing machine.
Schatz, Georg Gottlieb (1763–95): Writer. Of frail constitution as a boy, he turned to reading as a source of entertainment, reading French authors as well, and even as a teenager was influenced (including in his own writing style) by Lessing’s critical writings. From 1781 (Friedrich Jakobs, Personalien [Leipzig 1840], 338, dates the year as 1782) studied law (unsuccessfully) in Jena; after his father’s death in 1783, he broke off his studies to pursue literary interests, returning to his hometown of Gotha, where he was a close acquaintance of Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter and for two years worked as a lector for the high court official Ernst August von Studnitz, father of Julie Studnitz. Thereafter lived as a freelance writer in Gotha, publishing poems (a small collection, Blumen auf den Altar der Grazien [Leipzig 1787]) and Laura oder Briefe einiger Frauenzimmer aus der französischen Schweiz (1788/89), a sentimental epistolary novel. Wrote numerous reviews for the Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, and the Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften, and was also active as a translator. His critiques and cutting wit (he published a condescending review of Friedrich Ludwig Meyer’s Spiele des Witzes und der Phantasie [Berlin 1793]) variously prompted retaliations in journals against his own works, and he himself acknowledged that his talent lay more in the realm of criticism than creative writing.
Schelling, August Ludwig (17 March 1781–20 October 1859): Theologian, pastor, superintendent (Dekan) in Marbach, younger brother of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, hence after June 1803 Caroline’s brother-in-law. From 24 September 1810 married to Charlotte Christiane, née Gaupp (22 July 1792–5 August 1830). From 13 February 1831 married to Henrietta Sophia Gottliebin, née Laichinger (born 6 July 1786).
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph (von) (27 January 1775 Leonberg–20 August 1854 Bad Ragaz, Switzerland): From 26 June 1803 Caroline’s third husband. Philosopher. Born the the same parsonage as H. E. G. Paulus, both fathers being pastors in the Leonberg congregation outside Stuttgart. From 1777 his father was preacher and professor at the monastery school in Bebenhausen outside Tübingen, a kind of preparatory school for the Tübinger Stift, the seminary in Tübingen. Although Schelling was sent off to the Latin school in Nürtingen in 1785, he returned in 1787 because he had already exhausted the institution’s educational possibilities. Thenceforth he studied with the older students in Bebenhausen before entering the Tübinger Stift in 1790 with a special dispensation, since ordinarily one had to be eighteen to enter. Here he met and roomed with Hegel and Hölderlin, who were five years his senior. He earned his masters in 1792, studied philosophy at the university proper, and finished his seminary studies in 1795 (Hegel and Hölderlin had left in 1794), already having published in the field of philosophy. From 1796 private tutor to the young Barons von Riedesel, with whom he went to Leipzig, where he studied mathematics, natural science, and medicine. Beginning in 1797 he published several pieces on the philosophy of nature, gaining the attention of Fichte and prompting a university appointment (at Goethe’s initiative) in Jena in 1798. Spent part of the summer of 1798 in Dresden with the Schlegel circle (meeting Caroline for the first time) before assuming his duties as professor of philosophy in Jena. In 1799, when Fichte was forced to leave Jena and Friedrich Schlegel, Dorothea Veit, and Tieck moved there, he began his relationship with Caroline. After Caroline’s illness in early 1800 and the increasing friction within the group, he, Caroline, and Auguste traveled to Bamberg, where he lecltured and pursued medical studies. After Auguste’s death in July, Caroline went to Braunschweig with Wilhelm while Schelling returned to Jena in October. From January 1801 he worked closely with Hegel in Jena but became more alienated from Fichte, who was then in Berlin. After Caroline and Wilhelm’s divorce in May 1803, Schelling and Caroline journeyed to Murrhardt to stay with Schelling’s parents and were married there (by his father) on 26 June, he also receiving an appointment as full professor of philosophy in Würzburg, a position he left in 1806 (as did others), when as a result of the Peace of Pressburg the high bishopric Würzburg passed to Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany and a restoration was implemented. From 1806 member of the Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Munich but no activity as a regular professor again until 1820. 1806 public break with Fichte and in 1807 from Hegel, who includes a polemic against Schelling in the preface to the Phänomenologie des Geistes. From 1808 general secretary of the Academy of the Fine Arts in Munich. Profound existential crisis after Caroline’s death in 1809. In 1812 public dispute with Friedrich Jacobi. Married Pauline Gotter on 11 June 1812, their first son was born in December 1813. From 1820 honorary professor in Erlangen, from 1827 back in Munich, from 1835 also private teacher (philosophy) of the crown prince, later King Maximilian II. 1841 appointment in Berlin to counter the influence of Hegelians at the university, from 1842 member of the Prussian Academy of Science. From 1846 ceased lecturing in Berlin at the university. (Portrait: 1801, by Christian Friedrich Tieck.)
Schelling, Gottliebin Maria (Marie), née Cless (21 January 1746 Stuttgart–1818 Stuttgart): Schelling’s mother — whom he is said most to resemble physically, Caroline’s third mother-in-law. From 12 November 1771 wife of Joseph Friedrich Schelling. She was the daughter of the clergyman Wilhelm Jeremias Jakob Cless (1710–57), from 1738 a vicar in Ludwigsburg, from 1741 in Stuttgart, and Regine Dorothea Rieger (1720–57). (Portrait: last owned by Frau M. Bergfeld-von Schelling; reproduced in Carmen Kahn-Wallerstein, Schellings Frauen Caroline und Pauline [Bern 1959], 208.)
Schelling, Heinrich Gottlieb (2 June 1778–1800): Younger brother of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, attended the monastery school in Nürtingen (1790) as did Hölderlin and his elder brother before him. Killed in action near Genoa in 1800, prompting Schelling’s departure from Bamberg for Schorndorf — leaving Caroline and Auguste behind — to be with his parents after receiving the news.
Schelling, Johanna Beate (28 December 1779–25 October 1861): Schelling’s sister, from 26 July 1804, married to Senior Finance Secretary Carl Albrecht (Adolf) Gross (born 3 August 1765) in Stuttgart. After June 1803 Caroline’s sister-in-law.
Schelling, Joseph Friedrich (13 August 1737 Unterweissach/Backnang–5 October 1812 Maulbronn): Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling’s father and thus from 1803 Caroline’s father-in-law. Pastor, theologian, and scholar of ancient near eastern studies. 1752–56 early education in the monastery schools in Herbrechtingen, Denkendorf, and Maulbronn, from 1756 in the seminary in Tübingen (the Stift), where he attained his masters in 1758 and developed an interest in ancient near eastern languages. From 1765 vicar in Zaberfeld, from 1766 tutor at the seminary, later city vicar in Stuttgart and private house tutor to the court preacher Johann Christian Storr, where he also met Gottliebin Marie Cless, daughter of the Stuttgart city preacher, whom he married on 12 November 1771. In 1771–77 he was pastor in Leonberg, 1777–91 profesor at the monastery school in Bebenhausen outside Tübingen, from 1791 dean (special superintendent) in Schorndorf, from 1801 prelate in Murrhardt, from 1807 prelate and general superintendent in Maulbronn. Influenced by the historical-critical study of the bible advocated by the Swabian J. A. Bengel. As a scholar of Arabic, Syrian, and Hebrew, his pupils included several of the later leading theologians in Württemberg, and he himself was one of the first scholars in Württemberg to disseminate the philological and hermeneutical principles developed by Johann David Michaelis, Caroline’s father.
Schelling, Karl Friedrich August (1815–1863): Second son of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Pauline Schelling, née Gotter. Studied theology and became a vicar, edited and published the first more comprehensive edition of Schelling’s works and began publication of the letters; after his death, Gustav Plitt took over editorial duties for the latter.
Schelling, Karl (Carl) Eberhard (1783–1854): Physician, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling’s brother (hence from 1803 Caroline’s brother-in-law). From 1799 studied medicine in Jena, Tübingen, and Vienna, attaining his doctorate in 1803. From 1805 practicing physician in Stuttgart. Co-edited Adalbert Friedrich Marcus and Schelling’s Jahrbücher der Medicin als Wissenschaft (1805–8), also contributing articles and reviews (e.g., “Ideen und Erfahrungen über den thierischen Magnetismus,” 2 , no. 1, 3–46). Ultimately, however, he concentrated on his medical practice rather than on publishing. (Portrait: 1854 lithograph by Christian Sigmund Pfann, after a photograph.)
Schelver, Franz Joseph (1778–1832): physician and botanist. Studied medicine in Jena from 1796, though also philosophy under Fichte. Attained his doctorate in Göttingen in 1798, practicing then as a general physician in Osnabrück. From 1801 lecturer in Halle, from 1803 special professor in Jena (but not as the univesity’s first choice; Schelling promoted his successful candidacy for the position with Goethe earlier in 1803), from 1806 in Heidelberg after his collections were destroyed when the French came through Jena in October of that year. Advocate of Schelling’s philosophy of nature, incorporating it into his understanding of medicine. Also studied animal magnetism.
Schenk zu Schweinsberg, Ferdinand von: Uncertain, and problems in chronology abound, but in the context of Caroline’s stay in Marburg, Julius Steinberger, Erinnerungen, 143, suggests it might have been the Hessian minister Ferdinand von Schenk zu Schweinsberg (1765–1842): from 1781 law student in Marburg, from 1784 assessor for the municipal administration and consistory in Marburg, from 1785 till 1786 worked at the imperial court in Wetzlar, but from 1788 was transferred to the court of appeals in Kassel. In 1789 in Kassel he entered the service of crown prince Wilhelm, accompanying him in 1792 on a journey to Switzerland, from 1792 back in his former position with the administration and consistory in Marburg. His acquaintance with Caroline seems to depend on when during his service in Kassel he might have spent enough time in Marburg to form a closer acquaintance with her. In any event, he seems to have been romantically interested in Caroline in Marburg, even to the point of marriage.
Scherer, Wilhelm (1841–86): Austrian literary historian, professor in Vienna, Strassbourg, and Berlin, author of a comprehensive and enormously influential history of German literature taking its orientation from intellectual and cultural history, with biographical elements receding behind larger contextual views (Geschichte der deutschen Literatur ). The Scherer School of literary history was characterized by sound philological training and a thorough familiarity with cultural development. After Scherer’s death at only forty-five years of age, more than twenty-five of his former students were professors in Germany and Austria, including Erich Schmidt. (Portrait: engraving by L. Jacobi after a portrait by Julie de Boor; frontispiece in Scherer’s Geschichte der Deutschen Litteratur, 8th ed. [Berlin 1899].)
Scheuer (Scheurer, Scheyer), Johann Anton (born 1763–1849): From 28 October 1792 member of the Mainz Jacobin Club, police commissioner, from 19 March 1793 deputy in the Rhinish-German National Assembly representing Klein-Winterheim; fled Mainz on 30 March 1793, though was betrayed and captured by the Prussians, then imprisoned till 1795. See his succinct description in the pro-Prussian list of Clubbists Getreues Namenverzeichnis der in Mainz sich befindenden 454 Klubbisten, mit Bemerkung derselben Charakter (Frankfurt 1793), 13–14: “Scheuer, quartermaster, captured by the Prussians.” He emigrated to France, returning to Germany in 1796 as a member of the French administration on the left bank of the Rhine.
Schick, Gottlieb (1779 [1776?]–1812): Painter native of Stuttgart, where he studied under scholarship for four years at the Karl Academy. Studied in Paris under Jacques-Louis David from 1798 till 1802, starting to do portraiture; journeyed to Rome that same year, where he stayed till 1811. Felt wholly unappreciated in Stuttgart, where, however, he returned to die in 1812.
Schierstädt (Schierstaedt, Schierstett), August Wilhelm von (1781–13 April 1827): Prussian officer with literary aspirations who later married two Finckensteins, including, from 1814, Luise von Finckenstein. While still in Berlin, Wilhelm Schlegel mentions him in a letter to Ludwig Tieck on 13 March 1804 (Briefe an Ludwig Tieck 3:293; Lohner 152) among his students with respect to work on the second volume of his (Wilhelm’s) Spanisches Theater, which did not appear until 1809.
Schikaneder, Emanuel Johann (1751–1812): Viennese theater director and libretto composer who composed the libretto of The Magic Flute, for which Mozart, an old friend from Salzburg, supplied the music.
Schilcher, Franz Salis von (1766–1843): Bavarian civil servant, forestry administrator, finance administrator. From 1790 taught at the forestry school in Munich, from 1793 administrator, traveling throughout Germany in various matter relating to forestry. From 1799 upper level administrative official, from 1804 director of the territorial administration in Würzburg, from 1817 deputy president of the supreme financial administration.
Schill, Ferdinand von (6 January 1776–31 May 1809): Prussian major in the Hussar regiment, led an insurrection against Napoleon and the French in northern Germany after the commencement of the War of 1809. Eleven of his officers were executed in Wesel after Schill himself was killed in action in Stralsund. (Portrait: Friedrich Neubauer, Preussens Fall und Erhebung 1806–1815 [Berlin 1908], 249.)
Schiller, Charlotte, née von Lengefeld (1766–1826): Friedrich Schiller’s wife, sister of Caroline von Wolzogen, godchild of Charlotte von Stein. Met Schiller in Rudolstadt in 1787. Although Schiller was for a time passionately attracted to her sister, Caroline, the latter was already married at the time. In August 1789 Charlotte and Schiller became engaged, marrying in 1790 in a village near Jena. (Portrait: after Ludovike Simanowiz.)
Schiller, Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm (11 July 1796–19 May 1841): Schiller’s youngest son, born a few days after Caroline and Wilhelm Schlegel arrived in Jena. Studied law in Jena and pursued a career in Trier and Cologne, marrying into a well-to-do family in Bonn. His mother, Charlotte Schiller, died in Bonn while visiting him in 1826, and when he himself died there in 1841, he was buried in the same cemetery plot, albeit on top of his mother’s casket, which allegedly collapsed under the weight.
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) (10 November 1759–9 May 1805): Poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist, generally viewed with Goethe as the preeminent representative of the classical period in German literary history (Weimar Classicism). Born in Marbach, in Württemberg, and initially destined for the clergy, he ended up instead at the military academy of the duke of Württemberg, where he unwillingly studied medicine until he was twenty one. During his time there he worked on his play Die Räuber (1780), whose premiere he attended without permission, being then arrested by the duke and forbidden from writing after a second journey there. From 1780 to 1782 served as regimental physician in Stuttgart, during which time Die Räuber was performed in Mannheim, where Schiller fled in September 1782, receiving asylum for a time on the estate of Henriette von Wolzogen, who became his patroness. Pursuing his career as a playwright, he became the resident poet at the Mannheim Theater in 1783, his play Kabale und Liebe enjoying great success there. In increasing financial difficulty and after an unsuccessful affair with Charlotte von Kalb, in 1785 he journeyed to Leipzig and Dresden at the invitation of Chrisitan Gottfried Körner, Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, and their fiancées, Minna and Dora Stock, which improved his finances; he continued working on plays (the historical drama Don Carlos, which appeared in 1787) and writing in other genres. From 1787 he lived in Weimar, meeting and marrying Charlotte von Lengefeld in 1790 and publishing a piece on the history of the Netherlands in 1788, a work that prompted his appointment as professor of history in Jena in 1789, and a history of the Thirty Years War (1790/92). The position in Jena did not, however, offer much financial support. After serious health problems in 1791, he received a stipend from Prince Friedrich Christian and Count Heinrich Ernst von Schimmelmann. Thereafter he began an intensive study of Kant, became a closer friend of Goethe beginning in 1794 (their initial contact had been somewhat reserved if not strained), and published several philosophical pieces dealing with ethical and aesthetic issues. From 1795 edited Die Horen and in 1796 published the Xenien with Goethe satirizing their critics. In 1797 he finally began writing plays again, producing several classics during the next few years, including the historical tragedy and trilogy Wallenstein (1797–98), performed in 1799, then Maria Stuart in 1800, Die Jungfrau von Orleans in 1801, Die Braut von Messina, which included a chorus, in 1803, and Wilhelm Tell in 1804. Died in 1805 possibly of diverticulitis. (Portrait: 1794, by Ludovike Simanowiz.)
Schiller, Karl Ludwig Friedrich (14 September 1793–21 June 1857): Schiller’s eldest son. (Portrait: from Walter Weber, “Karl von Schiller. Zum 100. Todestag des vergessenen Sohnes unseres großen Dichters,” Schwäbische Heimat .)
Schilling, Friedrich Gustav (1766–1839): Writer and poet, especially of stories and novels, generally typical society novels, though several of his poems appeared in Schiller’s periodical Thalia. Known today primarily for his erotic novel Die Denkwürdigkeiten des Herrn v. H. (Rome 1787).
Schinderhannes (John the Scorcher), nickname of Johann Buckler (1779–1803): Head of a gang of highwaymen in the central Rhineland (on both sides of the Rhine) ca. 1800, who subsequently also became the subject of popular legends. Executed with nineteen of his followers on 21 November 1803 in Mainz by beheading. (Portrait by Karl Matthias Ernst; Stadtarchiv Mainz.)
Schlabrendorf, Caroline von (1761–1833): Strong-willed member of the Berlin aristocracy with a reputation of uprightness and a resolute, no-nonsense, sometimes brusque character. After her spouse died early, she seems to have kept her distance from high society in Berlin and turned more toward company she herself chose. Advocated the French Revolution, even in Prussian society, and while on a trip to France sometimes wore men’s clothing so as “not to be reminded each and every moment that she was only a woman” (so Varnhagen von Ense). She was, however, also known for her fierce loyalty to friends and family. Rahel Levin accompanied her to Paris in 1800–1801, where Schlabrendorf’s uncle, an essayist, was living.
Schläger, Angelica (1749–4 May 1824): Daughter of Carl Julius and Sarah Elisabeth Schläger and thus a granddaughter of Mother Schläger. Married to Johann Gottlieb Siegfried, an officer in the ducal military in Gotha and author of several military essays.
Schläger, Carl Julius (or Julius Carl/Karl) (25 September 1706–14 June 1786): Native of Hannover, initially a professor of philology in Helmstedt, then from 1744 director of the ducal library in Gotha, from 1747 numismatist, and from 1737 husband of Sarah Elisabeth (“Madam,” “Mother”) Schläger; the date of his death puts Luise Michaelis yet in Gotha at that time, since she mentions being there when he died. Among some acquaintances, Schläger did not otherwise enjoy a particularly good reputation either as a person or as an official. See the remarks of Reichard, Selbstbiographie, in the entry on Schläger’s wife, Sarah Elisabeth Schläger. (Portrait: courtesy of Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, Archiv der schleswig-thüringischen Familie Jacobs.)
Schläger, Dorothea Luise (Louise, Louisa) (canoness/Chanoinesse) (born 1744): Sarah Elisabeth Schläger’s daughter in Gotha (not her sister-in-law as identified in Wieneke , 561, with respect to letter 163). Luise Wiedemann, Erinnerungen, 13–14, refers to her as “an unmarried daughter” who had a position as chanoinesse in the convent Winhausen (Wienhausen, 15 km southeast of Celle; originally Roman Catholic, then first Protestant abbess attested in 1587) (perhaps the daughter Reichard, Selbstbiographie, 136, mentions; see the entry on Sarah Elisabeth Schläger).
Schläger, Sarah Elisabeth (also “Schlaeger,” “Madam Schläger,” “Mother Schläger”), née Schauer (1722–12 August 1803): Native of Hannover. Head of a home-based boarding school for girls in Gotha, from 1737 wife of the senior ducal librarian and (from 1747) numismatist in Gotha, Carl Julius Schläger (1706–14 June 1786). Their children’s years of birth: 1740 Johann Ludwig; 1743 Sara Dorothea; 1744 Dorothea Louisa; 1749 Angelique; 1750 Sophia (†1756).
Caroline lived with the family for two years while attending the school, and both Lotte and Luise Michaelis similarly attended the school (Lotte from late 1780 till April 1782, Luise from autumn 1784 till summer 1786). Concerning her personality, however, see the remarks by Reichard, Selbstbiographie, 135–36, who remarks that on receiving the title and privileges of a librarian in Gotha in 1775, he experienced
the vehement opposition of the aged senior librarian, Hofrath Carl Julius Schläger [Madam Schläger’s husband]. This scholar, doubtless one of the greatest numismatics who ever lived, was as a private individual an overbearing, grouchy, and ill-dispositioned pedant—with respect to insufferableness quite the worthy pendant to his highly repugnant spouse. She, like Schläger himself, was groveling toward distinguished persons while simultaneously abusing those subject to her. Both individuals were loathed to an unusual degree. I was present when Madam Schläger introduced her youngest daughter, whose godparent was Cardinal Quirini of Rome, an erudite correspondent of her father, to Abbé Raynal. Since this particular daughter was already along in years, the Abbé addressed her as ‘Madame,’ whereupon her mother reminded him that ‘the child’ was ‘still unmarried’; –– ‘Tant pis! [too bad]’ responded the ungalant Frenchman in a tone so sarcastic that even Madam Schläger was discouraged from tending a response.
Schlegel, August Wilhelm (8 September 1767 Hannover–12 May 1845 Bonn): From 1 July 1796 Caroline’s second husband (divorced on 17 May 1803). Writer, critic, translator, philologist. Elder brother of Friedrich Schlegel. From 1786 studied theology and philology in Göttingen, where he became closely acquainted with Gottfried August Bürger, who acted as his literary mentor, the two also translating Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream; after Schiller’s severe criticism of Bürger in 1791, Schlegel never had a genuinely easy relationship with Schiller. It was during this period that he first got to know Caroline, who had returned to her family in Göttingen after being widowed. From 1791 he worked as a private house tutor in Amsterdam and was already active as literary a critic and reviewer, then being invited by Schiller to contribute to the latter’s periodical Die Horen. He returned to Braunschweig in 1795, married Caroline on 1 July 1796, after which they moved to Jena, where he could be nearer Schiller. From 1798 professor in Jena, during which time he also published the periodical Athenaeum, the new Romantic school’s primary programmatic publication, with his brother Friedrich, who after spending some time in Jena in 1796 and returning to Berlin, returned to Jena in 1799 with Dorothea Veit. During this time Wilhelm also began his translation of Shakespeare (1797–1810), having already announced his work in Schiller’s Die Horen. He was also extraordinarily active as a critic and reviewer during this period. After Auguste’s death in July 1800, he and Caroline moved to Braunschweig for a time, and since various problems and polemical issues had made Jena less attractive for him, he moved from Braunschweig to Berlin in February 1801 without Caroline. There he delivered private lectures on literature and art (1801–4). After his divorce from Caroline in 1803, in 1804 he followed Madame de Staël back to her estate (Coppet) near Geneva as private tutor to her children, though his position was rather loosely defined and he had ample time for his own work as well. He remained with her until her death in 1817, traveling literally all over Europe—to Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, and Sweden (accompanying the Swedish crown prince, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte [from 1818 Charles XIV John of Sweden], as his secretary)—when she fled Napoleon, he even becoming a French-language anti-Napoleon propagandist for the Swedish general Bernadotte. In 1808 he delivered an important series of lectures on dramatic art and literature (Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, published 1809–11). In 1818 he was in line for an appointment as professor in Berlin but chose Bonn instead so that his new wife, Sophie Paulus, daughter of H. E. G. Paulus, could be nearer her mother (Paulus was teaching in Heidelberg at the time), but in a bitter dispute between Wilhelm and the family, Sophie never joined him in Bonn—or anywhere else—as his wife, though they never divorced. In Bonn he spent the rest of his life as a respected scholar of Sanskrit and Indian studies, in which capacity he is also viewed as one of the founders of modern comparative linguistics. (Portrait: ca. 1800/1802, unknown artist, possibly Johann Friedrich Bury; original: CC-BY-NC-SA @ Freies Deutsches Hochstift / Frankfurter Goethe-Museum.)
Schlegel, Charlotte Anna Christiana, née Trummer (27 March 1757–31 August 1853): Native of Harburg, daughter of Paul (1718–95) and Anna Maria (née Rumpff) Trummer, who moved to Hamburg; great niece of the Hamburg mayor Vincent Rumpff; wife of Moritz Schlegel.
Schlegel, Dorothea, née Brendel (= Veronica) Mendelssohn, divorced Veit, married (von) Schlegel (1764–1839): Writer, translator, wife of Friedrich Schlegel, eldest daughter of the Berlin philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. From 1784 married to the Berlin banker Simon Veit at her father’s behest. With Rahel Levin and Henriette Herz became involved in the progressive literary and intellectual circles of Berlin. In the salon of Henriette Herz, she met Friedrich Schlegel, who had moved to Berlin in July 1797 and who subsequently praised Dorothea in letters to Wilhelm, relating how he had rediscovered his youth in her arms. He wrote the essay “Über die Philosophie” in Athenaeum (1799) and took their relationship as a model for at least part of his novel Lucinde (1799). Although there was initially no talk of marriage, Dorothea divorced Veit in 1798, moved into her own apartment in Berlin with her son Philipp, and continued her relationship with Friedrich, moving to Jena with him in September 1799 and into Wilhelm and Caroline’s house. She had already begun translating in Berlin, and now began a novel of her own, which Friedrich published anonymously, Florentin (1801). She also contributed to Athenaeum and continued translating, though her health began hindering her writing (including the continuation of her novel). Spent time in Leipzig in April and May 1801; after Friedrich went to Berlin in November, she moved in with his sister Charlotte Ernst in Dresden in January 1802, where Friedrich soon joined her. In the spring of 1802 they moved to Paris, where she continued working on translation adaptations (some of which Friedrich published) and contributed material to his periodical Europa. In April 1804 she converted to Protestantism and married Friedrich. In the spring of 1804 they moved to Cologne, where she spent much time alone while Friedrich was away on trips (e.g., to visit Wilhelm at the estate of Madame de Staël in Switzerland). Here she completed her translation of de Staël’s novel Corinne, which Friedrich published under his name as translator in 1807–8. In April 1808 they converted to Catholicism. From 1808 in Vienna, where Friedrich found employment in the imperial administration. Although she traveled to Rome to see her sons 1818–20, she returned to Vienna, where she remained until Friedrich’s death in 1829. In 1830 she moved in with her son Philipp in Frankfurt. (Portrait: Dorothea v. Schlegel geb. Mendelssohn und deren Söhne Johannes und Philipp Veit: Briefwechsel, ed. J. M. Raich, 2 vols. [Mainz 1881], frontispiece to vol. 1.)
Concerning her year of birth: In older literature and on her gravestone, one finds the date 1763, but this is the birth year of her older sister Sara (23 May 1763–15 April 1764), whose untimely death was one of the reasons Moses Mendelssohn wrote his Phaedon oder über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (Berlin 1767); see Moses Mendelssohn’s letter to Thomas Abbt on 1 May 1764, Moses Mendelssohn, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. G. B. Mendelssohn, vol. 5 [Leipzig 1844] 315): “Several domestic blows have recently so shaken me that I have not even had the desire to engage in my favorite activity, namely, writing to my friends. Death has knocked at my door and robbed me of a child who lived but eleven innocent months on earth, albeit — praise God! — cheerfully and full of promise.”
Schlegel, Henriette Wilhelmine (Jette, Jettchen) (20 February 1761–3 February 1801): Younger sister of Friedrich and Wilhelm Schlegel; from 1795 married to Pastor Sigmund Ernst in Hildesheim-Moringen, the younger brother of Ludwig Emmanuel Ernst, Charlotte Ernst’s (née Schlegel) husband (Ernst Behler, Friedrich Schlegel in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten [Reinbeck bei Hamburg 1966], 13).
Schlegel, Johann Adolf (1721–16 September 1793): Consistory councilor and superintendent in Hannover, father of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel; from 5 September 1752 husband of Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe, née Hübsch. Writer (contributor to the Bremer Beiträage, composer of numerous hymns), Protestant cleric, brother of the writer and theorist Johann Elias Schlegel (1719–49). (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 212.)
Schlegel, Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe, née Hübsch (10 April 1734– 21 January 1811): Mother of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel (she often signed her letters Mother Schlegel); from 5 September 1752 wife of Johann Adolf Schlegel, whom she met when he was working at Schulpforta, where from 1725 her own father, Johann Georg Gotthelf Hübsch (1690–1773), taught mathematics (his pupils including Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock); she herself was born and died in Schulpforta.
Schlegel, Johann Karl Fürchtegott (1758–1831): Brother of Friedrich and Wilhelm Schlegel, husband of Julie Schlegel, née Erxleben. Attended school in Hannover, studied philosophy, history, and law in Göttingen 1779–82, from 1782 member of the consistory in Hannover, eventual consistory secretary. Active in trying to improve the legal status of Jewish residents in Hannover.
Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (Fritz, Uncle Fritz) (10 March 1772 in Hannover–11/12 January 1829 in Dresden): Writer, critic, philosopher. Younger brother of August Wilhelm Schlegel. Initially sent to Leipzig as an apprentice to prepare for a career in banking but soon quit and was permitted to pursue university studies after studying on his own to pass his Abitur in 1789. Studied in Göttingen and Leipzig (where he became acquainted with Friedrich von Hardenberg, Novalis) in 1790–94, first law, then philosophy, history, and classical philology. In 1793, while in Leipzig, he acted as a courier for letters between Caroline in Lucka and Wilhelm in Amsterdam and was godfather to her child born there. Joined Wilhelm and Caroline in Jena in 1796, he the more philosophically inclined of the two brothers and as such the one ultimately providing much of the philosophical articulation for the nascent “Romantic school.” Even before moving to Jena, he had already published articles in J. F. Reichard’s journals Deutschland and Lyceum der schönen Künste on contemporary German literature and had esp. been engaged in an intensive study of classical antiquity, on which he published several important pieces, including esp. Über das Studium der griechischen Poesie (1797), Die Griechen und Römer (1797), and Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen und Römer (1798), anticipating with the contrast between “objective” and “interesting” Schiller’s contrast between “naive” and “sentimental” with regard to ancient and modern writers. Apparently after alienating Schiller (the reason is not really documented), Friedrich was advised to leave Jena, moving thence to Berlin, where he frequented the leading literary and cultural salons and met Dorothea Veit, his later wife. His essay on Goethe’s novel Wilhelm Meister is viewed as one of the program statements of the group, and his own novel, Lucinde (1799), created a sensation with its characters–obviously based on Friedrich and Dorothea–and erotic subject matter and candor. He returned to Jena with Dorothea in 1799 (though they were not yet married) for the brief florescence of the Romantic school, though trouble within the group was quick to surface. He acquired his doctorate in Jena with a rather chaotic public defense (documented in this edition) and then tried to establish himself as a lecturer in transcendental philosophy; was essentially overwhelmed by the power of Schelling’s popularity when the latter returned from Bamberg and resumed his own lecturing. Friedrich’s play Alarcos (1802) was a failure. After the group dissolved he and Dorothea moved to Paris in 1802, where he studied Sanskrit and published the journal Europa (1803–05), moving then to Cologne in 1804 and converting with Dorothea to Catholicism in 1808, his own thought having taken a clearly more conservative, Christian turn in the meantime. From 1808 in Vienna, where he worked as a secretary at the Viennese court, socializing in conservative circles there; also participated in the Congress of Vienna and the Frankfurt meeting of the German Confederation (1815–18) and even served in Prince Wenzel Lothar von Metternich’s entourage in Italy for a time. His later lectures on history, literature, and philosophy along with his journal Concordia were characterized by cultural conservatism and an inclination to mysticism. (Portrait: 4 March 1798, anonymous pencil drawing; reproduced in Briefe von und an Friedrich und Dorothea Schlegel, ed. Josef Körner [Berlin 1926], following p. 20.)
Schlegel, Johann Elias (1719–49): Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel’s uncle. Had his early schooling with Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock at Schulpforta, then studied at the university in Leipzig, thereafter contributing to the periodicals of Johann Christoph Gottsched. Thereafter a Saxon minister in Copenhagen and from 1748 professor at a secondary school for sons of the nobility in Sore. Prolific playwright and critic, in the latter capacity also as the author of a study of Shakespeare and Andreas Gryphius (1741), one of the earliest positive assessments of Shakespeare.
Schlegel, Karl (Carl) August (1761–9 September 1789): Elder brother of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel; from 1782 an engineering officer with the Hannoverian regiment serving in Madras, India, undertaking a journey 800 miles into the interior of the country with the English general Sir John Dalling, from 1788 then also undertaking surveying work in the foothills of Carnatic (results now in the British Museum). Left behind a manuscript in English of a largely military geographical study of India, presumably still in the possession of the university library in Göttingen. Died and was also interred in Madras.
Schlegel, Karl August Moritz (Moriz) (1756–1826): Eldest brother of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel; from 1790 assistant pastor in Harburg, from 1796 superintendent in Göttingen, from 1816 general superintendent and senior pastor in Harburg; respected both as a preacher and a church administrator. Married to Charlotte, née Trummer (1757–1853). His son, Johann August Adolph Schlegel (1790–1840), a philologist, studied under his uncle Wilhelm Schlegel in Bonn from 1829.
Schleiden, Anna: Youngest daughter of Matthias Schleiden († 1802) and his wife Anna, née Langheim, who moved to Kiel late in life from their rural estate Lütjenhorn near Tønder and Agtrup in what is today southern Denmark; from autumn 1818 wife of Johannes Horkel (1769–1846), professor of comparative physiology in Berlin, whom she met in Kiel shortly after her mother’s death. Acquaintance of Luise Wiedemann while she was still in Kiel.
Schleiden, Elise, née van Nuys (9 July 1785–1874): Eldest daughter of Wilhelmine (Minna) Elisabeth (Elisa) van Nuys, sister-in-law of Anna Schleiden (Horkel), whose brother Christian, a merchant, she married on 25 January 1806, residing initially in Bremen, then Ascheberg in Holstein (just southeast of Kiel, whence her acquaintance with Luise and C. R. W. Wiedemann). She lived in Braunschweig with her mother when Caroline and Wilhelm Schlegel were there in 1800–1801 and was confirmed there on 2 April 1801. (Portrait: frontispiece to Rudolf Schleiden, Jugenderinnerungen eines Schleweig-Holsteiners, vol. 1 [Wiesbaden 1886].)
Schleiermacher (Schleyermacher), Friedrich Daniel Ernst (1768 Breslau–1834 Berlin): Theologian; though closely associated with the early Romantic circle in Jena, he and Caroline never met in person. His early education was considerably influenced by Pietism; chafing under Moravian instruction, he asked permission from his father to break off that schooling in 1787, enrolling thereafter to study theology in Halle, at the time a center of Enlightenment thinking. He remained in Halle till 1789, passing his final theological examination in Berlin in 1794. In the meantime he had become a private house tutor to a count in Schlobitten, where he wrote several philosophical pieces. After leaving Schlobitten in 1793 (under strained conditions), he eventually took a position in Berlin and published a piece on Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi’s writings on Spinoza. From 1794 he became a pastor in Landsberg, then from September 1796 preacher at the Berlin Charité Hospital.
He met Friedrich Schlegel while frequenting several of the literary salons in Berlin, eventually also rooming with him almost two years; it was during this period that the two began a collective translation of Plato, though Schlegel eventually left the work to Schleiermacher (much to the latter’s vexation). From 1802 he was pastor in Stolp, which he considered a kind of “exile,” his superiors in Berlin having become uncomfortable with his contact with the literary avant-garde (he was also intensively involved in Athenaeum) and with Jews, including Henriette Herz. His most important contribution to the Romantic school, his Reden über die Religion (1799), were initially published anonymously. In them he articulated an understanding of religion as the “perception of the universe” and as a union with the infinite which exerted enormous influence on subsequent theology. A piece on ethics followed in 1800, the Monologen, and a piece on the origin and nature of the Christian faith, Die Weihnachtsfeier (1806). In 1804 was a candidate for an appointment at the university in Würzburg, which he “declined” by having the Prussian court refuse to grant him leave; he received an appointment in Halle instead. After Prussia’s defeat in 1806, when the university in Halle was closed down, Schleiermacher moved back to Berlin, eventually accepting an appointment at the new university (1810) and becoming the first dean of theology there and remaining in Berlin the rest of his life. From 1809 married to Henriette von Willich (1788–1840). His most important later work, Der christliche Glaube nach den Grundsätzen der evangelischen Kirche was published in 1821/22. (Portrait: Hugo Bürkner, in Zweihundert deutsche Männer in Bildnissen und Lebensbeschreibungen, ed. Ludwig Bechstein [Leipzig 1854], s.v. [unpaginated].)
Schleusner, Gabriel Jonathan (6 July 1767–8 [9?] October 1798): From Danzig, physician, received his doctorate in 1796, 1796–98 assistant director of the maternity institute in Jena, conferred as a university lecturer in medicine there on 18 March 1797 but died on 8 or 9 October 1798. Translated various works from the French. Died not in Jena, as several lexica maintain, but in Schorndorf in Swabia, as Caroline herself confirms.
Schlichtegroll, Adolf Heinrich Friedrich von (1765–1822): Writer, archaeologist, librarian, numismatist. From 1783 studied law in Jena, then theology and philology, then transferred to Göttingen to study under Christian Gottlob Heyne. From 1792 married to Auguste, née Rousseau from Gotha (a granddaughter of Mother Schläger), with whom he had four sons and a daughter. From 1787 Gymnasium teacher and active in the ducal library in Gotha, from 1799 assistant to his father-in-law (Jacques August Rousseau) in the numismatic collection; before the outbreak of the war in 1806, he managed to take the collection to Altona, i.e., to Danish territory, returning it the following year. From 1802 head ducal librarian in Gotha. From 1807 general secretary of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (appointed by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi), where he also oversaw the court library and several other state collections. Published on archaeological topics, including on gem collections (e.g., with mythological themes) and artifacts. Best known for his magisterial biographical reference work, Nekrolog der Deutschen (34 vols., 1790–1806), most of whose entries he himself wrote or heavily edited. (Portrait: lithography ca. 1820, by Peter von Rausch; München, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, Inventar-Nr. 1964:194 D.)
Schlichtegroll, Auguste, née Rousseau (Luise Wiedemann refers to her in her memoirs as Dorette) (1770–13 June 1832): One of the daughters of Jacques August Rousseau in Gotha, from 1792 wife of Adolf Heinrich Friedrich von Schlichtegroll, with whom she had four sons and a daughter; her sister, Charlotte, married Karl Friedrich (von) Wiebeking in 1788.
Schlichtegroll, Sarah (Sara) Maria (1796–1 September 1873): One of Friedrich and Auguste Schlichtegroll’s two daughter (the other was Antonia). Maria (her preferred name), allegedly Schlichtegroll’s favorite daughter, married Heinrich August von Vogel (25 July 1778–24 November 1867) in 1816. Vogel, a professor of chemistry who succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Gehlen in Munich after studying and working in Paris, had arrived in Munich in the summer of 1816 and immediately become a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. A year before his death, he and Maria celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary.
Schlick, Caroline (Karoline), married name Ruppius (11 November 1786–ca. 31 December 1871): Daughter of Johann Konrad and Regina Schlick; born in Gotha, became an accomplished pianist (also played the guitar and sang) who after 1800 performed and eventually toured with her parents. Ca. 1812 had additional daily lessons from Carl Maria von Weber in Gotha. Karl Ludwig von Knebel in Weimar concurs with Caroline (Schelling) that Caroline Schlick was not particularly attractive (like Caroline Schelling, however, her face seems to have been marked by the earlier effects of smallpox). Later in service as a musician at the court in Gotha. From ca. 1816–18 married to Carl Ruppius (1786–1866), a physician to Friedrich IV of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg. Later moved with him to Freiburg/Breisgau and ultimately to Dresden.
Schlick (Schlik), Johann Konrad (1748–1818): Composer, musician (cellist). Initially a cellist in the cathedral orchestra in Münster, Schlick came to Gotha in 1777 at the behest of Duke Ernst Ludwig II, remaining there as member and secretary of the court orchestra but also touring extensively in Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Russia. Private concerts at his home were one of the premiere musical events of cultural life in Gotha at the time. Although Amalie Seidler apparently had a serious relationship with Schlick before it was surreptitiously disrupted both by her eventual (from February 1786) husband, H. A. O. Reichard, and, apparently at Reichard’s request and in a rather strong-armed fashion, by the duke himself (see the supplementary appendix Amalie Reichard), Schlick married Regina Strina-Sacchi (1761–1839) in 1785, a well-known Italian-born violinist at the time who once performed the Sonata in B Major before the emperor with Mozart, who had written it for her. Their daughter, allegedly an accomplished pianist, seems to have performed with her parents later as well. Both Caroline and Reichard mention how handsome Schlick was, and Caroline later seems to have met both Schlick and his daughter in Munich, having been introduced to them by the pianist Josepha von Fladt.
Schlick, Regina, née Strina-Sacchi (28 February 1761–11 June 1839): Daughter of a professor in Mantua, celebrated violin player (also played guitar and composed) who received her musical training largely in Venice. Lived in Paris, from 4 October 1785 married to Johann Konrad Schlick, with whom she regularly performed. She and her husband settled in Gotha sometime after 1786. Their daughter, Caroline (born 1786), was an accomplished pianist in her own right and later performed with them. Their son Johann Friedrich Wilhelm (born 1801) was an accomplished cellist and chamber musician. Regina Schlick impressed Mozart with her playing, and in 1786 performed with him a sonata he had composed for her before the emperor Joseph II in Vienna, albeit only after providing the violin part to her quite late; Mozart performed the piano part from memory. Regina later sold her 1718 Stradivarius to Louis Spohr; today it is played by Miriam Fried. (Portrait: Hans Timotheus Kroeber, Die Goethezeit in Silhouetten: 74 Silhouetten in ganzer Figur vornehmlich aus Weimar und Umgebung [Weimar 1911], plate 37.)
Schlosser, Johann Friedrich (Fritz) Heinrich (1780–1851): Native of Frankfurt and one of two sons of the Frankfurt administrative official Hieronymus Peter Schlosser (1735–97), the latter a friend of Goethe. Fritz Schlosser studied law in Jena, where he also attended the Schelling’s lectures on the philosophy of art during the winter semester 1802–3. After receiving his doctorate in 1803, he worked as an attorney, then from 1812 as director of the grand ducal Lycaeum in Frankfurt. He converted to Catholicism in 1814 and represented Frankfurt at the Congress of Vienna. His country estate near Heidelberg became a gathering place for artists, literary figures, and scholars, and he helped Goethe, whose Frankfurt business he took care of, with the writing of the autobiographical Dichtung und Wahrheit, providing material relating to Frankfurt history. He supported the Nazarene group of German painters in Rome and later donated his voluminous library to the Catholic seminary in Mainz.
Schlosser, Ludwig Wilhelm Gottlob (1774–20 June 1859): A native of Roda in Saxony-Altenburg, son of a physician. Graduated from the Gymnasium in Schleiz before studying theology in Erlangen. Worked initially as a private family tutor in Nürnberg, then in 1798 became pastor in Drakendorf, near Jena, where he remained until 1811 before taking over the pastorate in Grosszschocher near Leipzig, where he remained until his retirement in 1855. Lived out the rest of his life in Lindendau, located a bit closer to Leipzig. In 1846 he began composing his memoirs, Erlebnisse eines sächsischen Landpredigers in den Kriegsjahren 1806–1815 (Wiesbaden 1914). Also contributed articles to popular encyclopedias and translated.
Schlözer, August Ludwig von (1735–1809): Historian, politician, writer, journalist, husband of Caroline Friederike Schlözer, née Röderer. From 1751 studied theology in Wittenberg, then transferred to Göttingen to study theology under Caroline’s father, Johann David Michaelis, though he also studied natural sciences, law, and medicine. To enhance his own understanding of the Bible, he studied Near Eastern languages and geography in preparation for a trip to Palestine, reflecting his inclination to address theoretical problems through practical means. From 1755, at Michaelis’s behest, accepted a position as private house tutor to the pastor of the German congregation in Stockholm. He spent 1761–70 in Russia as a private house tutor and then as a teacher of Russian history, laying the groundwork for his most famous work, an edition of the Old Russian Nestor Chronical (1802–9). Czar Alexander I rewarded his service to Russian historical studies by ennobling him. Ultimately accepted a professorial appointment in Göttingen, where he taught universal history. Known for having insisted on gathering as much information from diverse fields as possible in order to understand a country and its history. (Portrait 1798, from Leopold von Schlözer, Dorothea von Schlözer, der Philosophie Doctor. Ein deutsches Frauenleben um die Jahrhundertwende 1770–1825 [Berlin, Leipzig 1923], plate following p. 8.)
Schlözer, Caroline Friederike, née Röderer (1753–1808): From November 1769 wife of August Ludwig von Schlözer. She was also the sister of J. C. Loder’s wife and daughter of Johann Georg Röderer (1726–63), professor of medicine at Göttingen and personal physician to the king of England. (Portrait from Leopold von Schlözer, Dorothea von Schlözer, der Philosophie Doctor. Ein deutsches Frauenleben um die Jahrhundertwende 1770–1825 [Berlin, Leipzig 1923].)
Schlözer, Dorothea (Dortchen), married name Rodde (1770–1825): Daughter of August Ludwig Schlözer and one of the Göttingen “university mamsells.” Learned to write at four and began studying geometry, French, and Latin at five, had learned ten languages by the time she was sixteen. Studied a variety of subjects in addition to languages, including mathematics, history, mineralogy (spending five weeks in the Harz Mountains studying mining), natural science, botany, chemistry, and even medicine. When she was eleven (winter semester 1781/82), she accompanied her father on a six-month journey to Italy, even meeting Pope Pius VI. In September 1787, encouraged by her father, who wanted to demonstrate that women, too, were capable of such intellectual accomplishments, she was promoted to doctor of philosophy with an oral examination at Caroline’s parents’ home, with Johann David Michaelis as dean of the philosophical faculty presiding (rather than publicly, as was normally the case), albeit with no written dissertation. In 1791, with her father’s help, she published Münz-, Geld- und Bergwerksgeschichte des Russischen Kaiserthums von 1700–1789 (1791). In 1792 she married Mattheus (Matthäus) Rodde, a merchant, senator, and later mayor of Lübeck, whom she had met on yet another journey with her father (to Hamburg, Kiel, and Lübeck), thereafter signing her name Rodde-Schlözer, the first woman in German to sign a double name. Hosted a cultural salon in Lübeck while also socializing with similar circles in nearby Eutin. After her husband went bankrupt in 1810, the family moved to Göttingen. (Leopold von Schlözer, Dorothea von Schlözer, der Philosophie Doctor: Ein deutsches Frauenleben um die Jahrhundertwende 1770–1825 [Berlin, Leipzig 1923], plate following p. 208.)
See Piter Poel, Bilder aus vergangener Zeit 245–46:
After his [August Ludwig Schlözer’s] return from Italy, where he had journeyed in a four-seater carriage with his daughter, two students, and a tutor . . . I saw his daughter, Dorothea, later married name Rodde, in the assemblées several times, which took place every two weeks alternating between the Pütter and Böhmer houses. Although she was hardly twelve years old, she was already playing a role in Göttingen society, answering the adults’ questions quite intelligently and unaffectedly while at the same time not at all denying her age among her younger friends, with whom she was certainly wont to indulge her childish frivolity and cheerfulness. Hence she and I also occasionally jested with each other, later recalling these fleeting moments with a bit of melancholy when fate brought us together again later. Her glowing appearance and serene disposition did not at all betray the enormous effort with which she had to pursue her study of the ancient languages, the history of antiquity, philosophy, mathematics, and other disciplines according to the will of her stubborn father in preparation for attaining a doctorate, in connection with which she surrendered herself over, as it were, at sixteen or seventeen years of age as a kind of festooned sacrifice to the curious Göttingen public. The violence visited on her nerves at the time was not without its deleterious effects later. She suffered later from an element of irritability that often prompted violent physical pain from the least cause, or plunged her into depression; she also acquired a certain crudeness in her movements and expressions that as little accorded with delicate femininity as did the neglect of her external appearance despite the utmost degree of cleanliness. Just as in general earlier circumstances in the parental home can explain so much of what a person carries over into adulthood from the impressions of youth, so also did much come to have a negative effect on the health and internal peace of this feminine being who was so loyally disposed, so devoted to truth, and so richly equipped by nature for pursuing her own happiness and engaging in beneficent activity.
Schlözer, Karl (Carl) von (1780–1859): Son of August Ludwig von Schlözer in Göttingen; later a businessman and Russian consul general consul in Lübeck. (Portrait [Karl at 19 years old] from Leopold von Schlözer, Dorothea von Schlözer, der Philosophie Doctor. Ein deutsches Frauenleben um die Jahrhundertwende 1770–1825 [Berlin, Leipzig 1923], plate followoing p. 168.)
Schmalz, Auguste Amalie (1771–1848): Operatic soprano. A native of Berlin, studied in Dresden but returned to Berlin in 1790, from 1793 as part of the Italian opera there. From 1802 till 1804 in Vienna, from 1806 till 1810 variously with other companies, including that in Munich, where Caroline and Schelling saw her, and also (from 1808) in Rome. Returned to Berlin in 1810 but, as earlier, never really managed to become a primary singer alongside others. Later worked as a singing instructor.
Schmidt, Erich (20 Juni 1853 in Jena–30 [so Allgemeines Gelehrtenlexikon, ed. Gert A. Zischka [Stuttgart 1961]; some sources say 29] April 1913 in Berlin): German literary scholar. Studied under Wilhelm Scherer, then from 1875 private lecturer and from 1877 special professor for German philology in Strassbourg, from 1880 full professor in Vienna. From 1885 director of the Goethe Archives in Weimar, from 1887 professor of German language and literature in Berlin, from 1909–10 rector. Editor of the 1913 edition of Caroline’s letters on which this translation is based. (Portrait: in Illustrirte Zeitung 138/139 .)
Schmid (Schmidt), Karl Christian Erhard (1761–1812): Philosopher and theologian in Jena. From 1778 studied in Jena, from 1781 worked as a private tutor for Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis), from 1782 private tutor in Schauberg, 1784 received his master’s degree and began lecturing in Jena, from 1785 on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, from 1791 as professor of logic and metaphysics in Giessen (left because of censor difficulties, having published the notorious atheistic piece De tribus impostoribus without first submitting it to the censor, a book he had gotten from Hardenberg from the latter’s parents’ library), from 1793 professor of philosophy in Jena, from 1798 of theology, earning his theological doctorate in 1800. An early supporter of Kant’s philosophy; published a popular dictionary of Kantian terminology (Critik der reinen Vernunft im Grundrisse zu Vorlesungen, nebst einem Wörterbuche zum leichtern Gebrauch der Kantischen Schriften [Jena, 1786]). He also published a Kantian textbook on moral philosophy (1790) and a well-received piece on physiology (1798). Performed the marriage ceremony for Friedrich Schiller and Charlotte von Lengefeld in 1790. Rector of the university in Jena during the winter semester 1800–1801 and the summer and winter semesters 1801–2.
Schmidt, Friedrich Wilhelm August, known as Schmidt von Werneuchen (1764–1838): Lyric poet, pastor in Werneuchen near Berlin. From 1783 to 1786 studied theology in Halle, worked as a preacher at a hospital in Berlin, and from 1795 in Werneuchen. From 1787 published poems in almanacs and journals, from 1792 largely in Neuer Berlinischer Musenalmanach, which he co-edited till 1796. Goethe (Musen und Grazien in der Mark, 1796) parodied his poems and their praise of simple country life and marital happiness, though was later (Maximen und Reflexionen) more lenient. Also published Kalender der Musen und Grazien (1796–97). (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 335.)
Schmidt, Johann Christoph (1827–1807): Cousin and closest childhood friend of Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock. Attended Schulpforte in Naumburg 1740–46, then the university in Leipzig. Klopstock, who was studying in Jena, transferred to Leipzig in 1748, where he and Schmidt shared a room. From 1757 Schmidt was a ducal secretary, then from 1763 privy councilor, and from 1786 chamber president in Weimar, where he was thus Goethe’s colleague. One of the contributors to the Bremer Beiträge.
Schminke (or Schmincke), Johann Jacob: from 1776 manservant in the service (along with his wife) of August Ludwig Schlözer. Accompanied Schlözer on his trip to Italy with Schlözer’s daughter, Dorothea, in 1781/82.
Schneider, Auguste (Gustl, Güstchen) (1755–23 February 1785): Actress in Gotha, mistress of Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg. H. A. O. Reichard, Selbstbiographie extols her charm and admits to being smitten by her himself, also recounting how a certain Herr Dürfeld committed suicide because of his unrequited love for her. Auguste Schneider allegedly also promoted the relationship between Reichard and his later wife, Amalia Seidler. The duke had charged Reichard with taking walks with Auguste during her illness in his (the duke’s) stead but with keeping that circumstance unknown to her. Although Reichard was with her on the day of her death, Therese Forster, who had been friends with her since the spring of 1783, made him leave the house before the end, only alerting him of her death later by billet. Therese speaks extensively in her letters about her friendship with Auguste Schneider and about the latter’s death. See esp. Caroline’s letter to Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Meyer on 16 March 1794 (letter 143) with note 2 and supplementary appendix 143.1.
Schneider, Eulogius (Johann Georg) (1756–1 April 1794): Franciscan monk, professor, Jacobin. Attended a Jesuit Gymnasium in Würzburg but came into conflict with his teachers, decided against studying theology and instead registered in Würzburg as a student in philosophy and law; punished for premarital sex and as a result lost his financial support as a tutor, whereupon he returned home. Began studying theology in Bamberg, where he also joined the Franciscan order (whence his name Eulogius). Finished his studies in Salzburg, where he also used the library to deepen his acquaintance with Enlightenment writings. From 1786 court preacher at the Württemberg court of Duke Carl Eugen, though his Enlightenment ideas were less welcome. From 1789 professor of literature and fine arts in Bonn, where his students included Ludwig van Beethoven. In 1789 he also left the Franciscan order, though was then dismissed from his professorship because of his controversial writings in 1791, the same year he became a Freemason, from which he was also later excluded. From 1791 in Strasbourg, where he occupied various administrative, teaching, and preaching positions while becoming an increasingly ardent supporter of the French Revolution, for a time serving as president of the Strasbourg Jacobin club and sitting on revolutionary tribunals, in which capacity he also imposed ca. thirty death sentences. Also composed a German version of the Marseillaise. Arrested on 15 December for alleged “ostentation” after his wedding and sentenced to the stocks, thereafter being taken to Paris and guillotined on 1 April 1794, presumably as part of Robespierre’s liquidations of sansculottes.
Schnurrer, Christian Friedrich (28 October 1742–10 November 1822): Professor of Near Eastern studies and theology in Tübingen. Like many theologians in Württemberg, he attended the preparatory schools in Denkendorf and Maulbronn. He then attended the theological department for tutors in Göttingen, where he also studied under Caroline’s father, Johann David Michaelis, then learned Arabic in Jena and Leipzig, even studying manuscripts in Arabic in London and Paris. From 1772 professor at the university in Tübingen, from 1777 head of the seminary, and from 1806 chancellor of the university. That is, Schnurrer was head of the seminary in Tübingen during the time Hegel, Hölderlin, and Schelling attended.
Schnurrer, Friedrich (6 June 1784–9 April 1833): Son of the Tübingen theologian Christian Friedrich Schnurrer. Studied medicine in Tübingen under Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer, then from 1805 in Würzburg, Bamberg, Göttingen, and Berlin. Also spent time in Paris. From 1811 a physician in Herrenberg, from 1814 Vaihingen an der Enz, from 1830 court physician and from 1832 Gehimrath in Biberich for the Duke of Nassau. Prolific writer in his field.
Schönemann, Anna Elisabeth (the “Lili” of several of Goethe’s poems) (1758–1817): From Offenbach just outside Frankfurt; engaged to Goethe in the spring of 1775, though the engagement was dissolved six months later, with both sets of parents objecting. Nonetheless Goethe never forgot her, and even when he was eighty remarked that she was not only the first woman he deeply and truly loved, but perhaps also the last. (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 276.)
Schopenhauer, Johanna, née Trosiener (1766–1838): Mother of the philosopher Arthur and the writer Adele Schopenhauer; lived initially in Danzig, from 1793 in Hamburg, acquiring financial independence after the death of her husband in 1805. From 1806 she lived in Weimar as a prolific writer and salonnière, though in 1819 she lost much of her investments but refused assistance from her son, supporting herself instead by writing; from 1832 in Bonn, from 1838 in Jena, where she died in poverty. (Portrait: by unknown artist; reproduced in Doris Maurer, Charlotte von Stein [Frankfurt am Main 1997], 230.)
Schröder, Friedrich Ulrich Ludwig (1744–1816): Actor, theater director, writer, translator. Possibly the most famous German actor and director of the eighteenth century. Spent his childhood largely with the itinerant theater company of his stepfather, Konrad Ackermann, first appearing on stage as a three-year-old in St. Petersburg. From 1756 his parents left him in Königsberg for schooling, then in 1759 he rejoined them in Switzerland and trained to be an actor and dancer. Profoundly influenced by Conrad Eckhof after the latter joined the Ackermann company. From 1764 he then performed at Ackermann’s theater in Hamburg, after whose death in 1771 he took over as director of the company. Became acquainted with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in Hamburg. From 1780 toured Germany, visited Paris, then from 1781 was an actor and playwright in Vienna, 1786 back in Hamburg, where he again directed the theater in 1786–98 and 1811/12. One of his best-known roles was as Philipp II in Schiller’s play Don Carlos. He is perhaps best known for having introduced a more realistic acting style in the theater and for having brought Shakespeare (in Christoph Martin Wieland’s translation) and the plays of the Storm and Stress movement to the German stage. Adapted or translated numerous foreign plays as well. His own most successful play was probably Der Vetter in Lissabon (1786). Member of the first German Freemason group (Hamburg), for which he also developed a ritual that is still used by some groups today, even outside Germany. His close friend Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer wrote his biography, Friedrich Ludwig Schröder: Beitrag zur Kund des Menschen und des Künstlers, 2 vols. (Hamburg 1823). (Portrait: excerpt from painting by Friedrich Carl Gröger.)
Schröter, Corona Elisabeth Wilhelmine (1751–1802): Singer, actress, composer. (Caroline will also spell her name Schröder.) From a musical family, she trained as a singer (soprano) in Leipzig, where she performed publicly for the first time in 1765 and where she also met Goethe. Very soon, however, she became rivals in Leipzig with Gertude Elisabeth Schmeling (married name Mara), and the Leipzig public itself split into two groups. The rivalry lasted until 1771, when Schmeling went to the court in Berlin at the behest of Friedrich II. Not only was Goethe charmed by her, when Johann Friedrich Reichardt began studies in Leipzig in 1771, he was utterly smitten with love, accompanying her daily on piano. From 1776, at the behest of Goethe, who had been in Weimar only a year himself, she came to Weimar as an actress and singer at the amateur court theater, where she became what may be called a star because of her beauty and grace, especially in roles in Goethe’s plays (title role in the premiere of Iphigenie auf Tauris in 1779, opposite Goethe as Orestes), continuing to sing and act in informal settings when that theatre was replaced by professional actors in 1783. She was, however, allegedly unapproachable, Duke Karl August himself calling her as beautiful as marble but also as cold; Goethe, however, did have a relationship with her until Charolotte von Stein stepped in more forcefully, and his relationship with Schröter is still not entirely transparent, since he apparently destroyed their correspondence (except for his farewell letter to her). Schröter composed the singspiel Die Fischerin after a text by Goethe and published other songs as well. Possibly the model for the Amazon in Goethe’s novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. From 1788 withdrew increasingly from court life, finally leaving Weimar in 1798 in favor of a reclusive life in Ilmenau, where she died of tuberculosis. (Portrait: 1787, by Anton Graff.)
Schubart, Christian Friedrich Daniel (1739–91): Writer, composer, journalist, organist. Forced to terminate his theological studies in Erlangen because of reckless behavior, eventually became court organist in Ludwigsburg but was dismissed by Duke Karl Eugen for dubious morals and expelled from Württemberg. He therafter published an anti-Roman Catholic (esp. anti-Jesuit) newspaper in which he also satirized Karl Eugen and his mistress, Franziska von Hohenheim, whereupon he was enticed back onto Würtemmberg territory and incarcerated for ten years without a trial, thereafter, however, becoming ducal theater and musical director in Stuttgart. Advocated equal rights for Jews, the elimination of slavery, and a stop to the sale of citizens as mercenary soldiers to other countries. Wrote religious poetry, political poems, and pieces evoking the style of folk songs.
Schubert (Schubart) Henriette (5 January 1769–1831): Writer, translator, sister of Sophie Mereau. Born in Altenburg, spent most of her life in Jena. Collaborated on several of Sophie Mereau’s publications and published elsewhere as well, including translations of Scottish ballads and English writings. Never married, so lived in limited circumstances because she lacked personal wealth; occasionally received financial support from Sophie Mereau, including indirectly with commissions for literary works. Published the poem “Endymion” in Bernhard Vermehren’s Musen-Almanach für das Jahr 1802 (Leipzig 1802), 169–72.
Schubert, Gotthilf Heinrich (1780–1860): Philosopher of nature, widely read, one of Schelling’s most loyal followers alongside Henrik Steffens. His work was not without influence on Schelling’s turn to Christian elements during the latter’s early years in Munich. Initially studied theology, then medicine, from 1801 in Jena, where he received his Dr. med. in 1803. His memoirs provide a vivid description of his studies in Jena and esp. his encounter with Schelling. Worked 1803–5 as a physician in Altenburg, then from 1806 as a freelance writer in Dresden; from 1808/09 rector of a Real-Gymnasium in Nürnberg (mediated by Schelling; Hegel was rector of the liberal-arts Gymnasium there). From 1816 to 1819 tutor to a prince, from 1819 professor in Erlangen, from 1827 in Munich (1827–41 as Schelling’s colleague).
Schulenburg- Kehnert, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von (1742–1815): Prussian administrator and general. Fought in the Seven Years’ War. From 1771 vice-president of the general directory. From 1782 head of maritime trade under Friedrich II; ennobled 1786. Then, under Friedrich Wilhelm III, he was from 1790 the head of the senior war council, from 1791 cabinet minister, from 1798 minister of finance, from 1800 general postmaster, from 1806 governor of Berlin. Administrator of Hannover during Prussian occupation. Finally entered the service of Jérome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, as a state counselor and division general.
Schuler, Carl Christian von (22 August 1756–23 August 1838): Son of the Electoral Hessian colonel Johann David Gotthardt von Schuler and Margaretha von Brinken, née van der Velden; married to Sophia Caroline von Hanstein (18 September 1766–31 October 1831). This extended family seems to have been the Schulers with whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg. Carl von Schuler, who participated in the American War of Independence, subsequently moved to Hildburghausen, where his title was Grand Ducal Mecklenburg-Strelitz Chamberlain (though as late as 1824 he was still identified as a nonnative in legal matters; both he and Sophia Caroline von Schuler died and are buried in Hildburghausen). He was the brother-in-law of Louise von Hanstein, canoness in Oberkirchen, who, along with Carl von Schuler’s mother (who, divorced, followed him to Hilburghausen), also died in Hildburghausen.— Caroline later mentions the move to Hildburghausen in her letter from Munich to Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, on 31 January 1807 (letter 421), in which she recounts meeting two of the Hanstein sisters in Munich and mentions Minette (Wilhelmine), yet another canoness from Oberkirchen. (Biographical information from R. A. Human, Chronik der Stadt, der Diözese und des Herzogtums Hildburghausen [Hildburghausen 1886].)
Schuler, Johann David Gotthardt von (dates unknown): Presumably the head of the Schuler family with whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg, though it is by no means certain he lived in Marburg; such may have been simply his son, Carl Christian von Schuler. Married to Margarethe von Brinken, née van der Velden, though they eventually divorced; she seems to have followed her son to Hildburghausen, where she died in 1825. Served in the Hessian army during the American War of Independence, till January 1776 as a company commander.
Schulz, Joachim Christoph Friedrich (1762–98): Writer, one of the most popular authors of his day. After a period as a theology student in Halle, where he supported himself as a translator from the French, and then with a theater company in Dresden, Schulz became a freelance writer. The success of his novels and journal, the Almanach der Belletttristen und Bellettristinnen für’s Jahr 1782, he was able to travel to Berlin, Vienna, and Weimar, in the latter of which he became friends with J. J. C. Bode and the Jena professor Karl Leonhard Reinhold. Published extensively in Christoph Martin Wieland’s Teutscher Merkur. From 1789 in Paris, publishing a history of the revolution. From 1790 in Weimar, from 1791 professor of history at the Gymnasium in Mitau (in Courland, now Latvia). (Portrait: Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv und Grafiksammlung, Porträtsammlung, Inventar-Nr. PORT_00014647_01.)
Schulze, Ernst Konrad Friedrich (1789–1817): Poet, writer. From 1806 studied first theology in Göttingen, preparing to be a country preacher, then, encouraged by Friedrich Bouterwek, classical philology, literary history, and aesthetics, earning his doctorate in 1812 and later becoming a lecturer. Schulze had a relationship with both Cäcilie and Adelheid Tychsen, daughters of Professor Thomas Christian Tychsen in Göttingen. He was deeply affected by the death in 1812 of Cäcilie, and celebrated her in several poems (included in Gedichte [Göttingen 1813]). Of two women named “Adelheid” in his life, one is an unrequited attachment he made in Plessburg in the Harz Mountains in 1809 (where he remained till July 1810), the other Cäcilie Tychsen’s younger sister, for the latter of whom he developed an unrequited love (and who apparently caused him even more heartache than Cäcilie; moreover, in 1811 he apparently also had an unfortunate relationship with a married woman of the nobility in Göttingen). After several years of despondency, new circumstances and a new love revived his poetic spirit, and he published his celebration of Adelheid, Die bezauberte Rose: Ein Romantisches Gedicht in drei Gesängen (in vol. 4 of Ernst Schulze’s sämmtliche poetische Schriften, 4 vols. [Leipzig 1818–20]), a piece that had won a competition conducted by Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus in Leipzig for the best romantic verse narrative. By the time the prize was announced, however, Schulze himself lay dying, and after his death on 29 June 1817 the publisher ended up having to compose a eulogy for the young poet rather than genuinely introducing him as a new talent. Publications include also Cäcilie. Eine Geisterstimme (Göttingen 1813), and the verse epic Cäcilie. Ein romantisches Gedicht in zwanzig Gesängen (Leipzig 1818), dedicated to his deceased beloved.
Schuppach, Michel (1707–81): Swiss doctor known for being able to diagnose and treat patients’ ills by examining their urine, their smell, and their personal appearance; known as the “physician of the mountain” because of the location of his house above the village of Langenau. (Potrait: Gottfried Locher [artist]; Christian von Mechel [engraver]; Yale University; Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Historical Library, Engravings Collection.)
Schütz, Anna Henriette, née Danovius (ca. 1751 [1758?]–1823): From 1778 wife of Christian Gottfried Schütz, daughter of Ernst Jakob Danovius, the latter from 1768 professor of theology in Jena who committed suicide in 1782 by drowning himself in the Saale River despite having polemicized against Goethe’s Leiden des jungen Werthers as an apology of suicide.
Schütz, Christian Gottfried (1747–1832): Philologist, journalist, founder of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung. (Caroline sometimes spells his name Schüz.) From 1765 studied theology, history, philosophy, and ancient languages in Halle, earning his masters in 1768 but declining an appointment in Halle for financial reasons. After an interim period teaching mathematics at the Ritterakademie in Brandenburg (a private school for the nobility in preparation for state service), he received a tutorial position in the theological department in Halle under Johann Salomo Semler, though he also lectured and became an associate professor in 1773, becoming involved in pedagogical training for the seminary students as well. From 1777 full professor, from 1779 professor of poesy and rhetoric in Jena, where he had little success as a teacher. Only after he founded the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung in 1785 with Friedrich Justin Bertuch and Christoph Martin Wieland (Gottlieb Hufeland joined as editor in 1788) did his standing (and finances) improve. He remained the senior editor until well into old age, the breadth (if not depth) of his knowledge proving ideally suited for such activity. As a philologist, his editions of authors such as Xenophon and Aeschylus, while grammatically solid, were later criticized as lacking critical acumen. While his activity found little resonance among students, his house did become the center of intellectual socializing in Jena, including among its guests Goethe, Schiller, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Fichte, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, and even Duke Karl August of Weimar himself; from 1797 Heinrich Karl Abraham Eichstädt joined the periodical staff. The arrival of Wilhelm Schlegel changed this situation; the younger generation was now asking for a different literary climate and Wilhelm’s own behavior was characterized by an element of haughtiness. Personal conflicts with Wilhelm began to make Jena less attractive to Schütz (concerning the establishment of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, Schütz’s editorship, and the initial tension with Wilhelm Schlegel, see esp. the supplementary appendix Garlieb Merkel on the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung), who in 1803 was glad to accept an appointment in Halle and to take the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung along with him when he moved there in 1804 (the Jenaische Literaturzeitung emerged shortly thereafter as a rival journal). — Schütz published a well-received edition of Cicero’s rhetorical writings in 1804–8. After someone shot at the advancing French from his house in October 1806, the house was almost totally destroyed and Schütz himself arrested. After the university was closed, he had to sell a large portion of his library to survive financially. Became increasingly eccentric as a professor in his old age and was eventually relieved even of the few duties left to him. The Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung was sold to the publisher Schwetschke in 1824.
Schütz, Friedrich Karl Julius (31 May 1779–1844): Professor of philosophy in Halle, journalist, son of Christian Gottfried Schütz and one of the husbands of Johanna Henriette Rosine Meyer, née Schüler. After private instruction from his father, the precocious boy attended the Gymnasium in Gotha, studying under Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs. Studied history and aesthetics in Jena, then in Erlangen and Göttingen, completing his inaugural dissertation and lecture in Jena in 1800 and also marrying that year. Worked with his father on the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, then followed his father to Halle in 1804, accepting a position as associate professor of philosophy and continuing his journalistic activity. After the death of his wife in 1806, he moved to Berlin, where he met Henriette Meyer, née Schüler, marrying her in 1811(10?). He accompanied her on a European tour and even performed onstage himself at her behest before separating from her in Halle amid considerable marital problems. He lectured a bit longer in Halle before moving to Hamburg, while she continued to care for his father in Halle; they finally secured a legal divorce in 1827. Schütz remarried yet again and lectured again in Halle, albeit without success and clouded by accusations of moral failings.
Schütz, Gottlob Friedrich († March 1834): Physician in Maulbronn. A native of Württemberg, attained his medical degree in Tübingen in 1799 with the dissertation “Diss. sistens experimenta circa calorem foetus et sanguinem ipsius institute,” then became district physician (Oberamtsarzt) in Maulbronn, from 1806 also physician for the seminarium or boarding school there. Published several essays on the legal aspects of medicine in the Zeitschrift für Staatsarzneikunde. Also several books on the duties of coroners, on autopsies, and on peculiar medical cases, including Katechismus für die Leichenschauer, oder Belehrung über die Pflichten derselben und Anweisung wie sie sich in allen Fällen zu verhalten haben (“catechism for coroners, or instructions concerning their duties and how they are to conduct themselves in all cases”) (Stuttgart 1834); Normalinstruction für Leichenschauer (“basic instructions for coroners”) (Stuttgart 1834). Was the physician who first attended Caroline when she fell ill in early September 1809.
[Hendel-]Schütz, Johanne Henriette Rosine (1772–1849): Actress. Born into a theatrical family, debuted at two years old in Breslau, received musical training from, among others, Georg Anton Benda, and dance instruction. Engaged in the Berlin ballet at nine years old in children’s roles, then at a court theater in Schwedt/Oder. Married the singer Johann Friedrich Eunick in 1788, performing thereafter in Bonn, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt. Inspired by Emma Hamilton, she also began developing a solo program. From 1796 till 1806 a member of the National Theater in Berlin under August Iffland, achieving essentially star status. Divorced in 1797, after which she married the physician Meyer (who forbade her from playing what he considered the compromising role of Creusa in Wilhelm Schlegel’s play a second time), divorcing him in 1804/05 and marrying the military physician Hendel in 1805, who died shortly thereafter. Continued her pantomime performances in Halle and elsewhere with considerable success. Married Friedrich Karl Julius Schütz in 1811 (son of Christian Gottfried Schütz, editor of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung in both Jena and Halle with whom Wilhelm Schlegel and Schelling had had such vehement literary quarrels). Retired publicly from the stage in 1820, giving only sporadic private performances thereafter. Divorced Schütz in 1824 and lived with one of her stepsons in Köslin.
Schütz, Christian Wilhelm von (1776–1847): Writer. Native of Berlin; casual acquaintance of Ludwig Tieck in early school years. Wilhelm Schlegel was initially attracted to his formal poetic talent, and he and Ludwig Tieck published a Spanish-English influenced romanze by Schütz in their Musen-Almanach für das Jahr 1802 (Schütz’s pseudonym/ciper there was “SZ”), later also helping introduce his play Lacrimas in 1803 (an imitation of Friedrich Schlegel’s Alarcos). Schütz was, however, unable to escape the overwhelming influence of Schiller, thereafter remaining nominally close to the Romantics while yet largely imitating the forms of antiquity and following Schiller’s lead even in choice of material. Eventually converted to Catholicism. Wilhelm Schlegel harshly criticized his poetic failures in 1809 in a letter to Tieck and essentially dismissed him thereafter as a writer.
Schwadke, Karl Wilhelm (born 1768): A native of Prenzlow, began acting in Stralsund in 1786, acting at the time under the name Engel. Debuted in Berlin in 1795. Married to the actress Charlotte Amalie, née Grossmann.
Schwarz (dates unknown): Otherwise unidentified architect and painter with whom Caroline was acquainted at least in Munich and possibly earlier. He in any case did a sketch of Auguste for her (letter 332). He seems to have visited Caroline in 1807 in Munich (letter 423) and brought with him considerable gossip about the German artists’ colony in Rome, where he was acquainted with the Riepenhausen and Tieck brothers, and also seems to have accompanied the Gotters from Gotha to Weimar earlier, which presumably puts him in Weimar ca. September 1801.
Schwarzkopf, Joachim von (23 March 1766–1 July 1806): Jurist, diplomat, historian of journalistic writing. 1783–86 law student in Göttingen, thereafter in Hannoverian service (whence Caroline’s reference to him as a “countryman”). From 1796 married to Sophie Bethmann, a key player in securing Caroline’s release from Königstein in July 1793 through Bethmann’s relationship with the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm II. Diplomatic representative and secretary at various levels (chancellery, legation) for Great Britain and Braunschweig-Hannover in Berlin, from 1792 ennobled, from 1796 having the rank of ministre résident in Frankfurt (where he was an acquaintance of Goethe’s mother) and the upper Rhine territory, from 1804 also ducal Mecklenburg-Strelitz privy legation councilor and royal Prussian canon in Minden. Published a history of political and scholarly newspapers and journals and as such was one of the founders of the nascent discipline of newspaper research. (Portrait by Wilhelm Arndt; Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, Porträtstichsammlung, Inventar-Nr. 47/34.)
Schwarzot, Thomas (dates unknown): Physician, initially in an otherwise unknown capacity in Bamberg. He is later listed as a practicing physician in Vienna, albeit not as one associated with the university (Taschenbuch der Wiener Universität für das Jahr 1805 19 , 114), and published on parasitic nematodes there in 1820 (Bernhard Ritter, “Mittheilungen aus der Praxis für die Praxis,” Rheinische Monatsschrift für praktische Aerzte 5 , 377–400, here 384). Schwarzot seems to have published regularly in the periodical Beobachtungen und Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der gesammten prakt. Heilkunde etc. Von den Directoren und Professoren des Studiums der Heilkunde an der Universität zu Wien. Erich Schmidt initially read his name in letter 326 as “Schwapet.” Dorothea Schlegel took her son Philipp Veit to see Schwarzot in Jena during the summer of 1801 for a case of elephantiasis.
Schweinsberg, Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Heinrich Schenck zu (1765–1842): From 1781 studied law in Marburg, 1785–86 interned at the imperial administrative court in Wetzlar, though had already become a municipal and consistory administrator in Marburg in 1784; from 1788 at the upper appeals court in Kassel. From 1789 he tutored Crown Prince Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel during the latter’s period of study in Marburg. In the spring of 1792 he accompanied the prince on a trip to Italy; because of the advance of French troops, however, they made it only as far as Geneva, after which he returned to administrative and consistory work in Marburg. Eventually worked in high administrative positions in Electoral Hesse. When Wilhelm’s son came to power after his father’s abdication in 1831, he dismissed Schweinsberg, who then returned to his estates.
Schwengelm, Peter von (dates unknown): From Livonia; from 7 October 1790 law student in Göttingen, residing in the house of Johann Christian Dieterich on Müenpfortengasse, the later Prinzenstrasse; allegedly one of Elise Bürger’s paramours.
Scotes, Pietro (dates unknown): Italian improvisatore, or poetic improviser, from an old Spanish family in Verona. He seems to have studied metaphysics and aesthetics and developed an inclination for poetry quite early. Influenced in Verona by Abbot Lorenzi, who could improvise even on mathematics and scientific subjects. Scotes also published a short epic piece, Verona salvata (Venice 1800) in tercets, inspired by the defeat of the French commander Scherer in 1799 in Italy. Also influenced by the improviser Gianni in Milan, and seems also to have written some opera librettos. Scotes performed in several German cities, including, Munich, Regensburg, Prague, Dresden, Berlin, Gotha, Leipzig, and, during the summer of 1802, Weimar, also performing for the widowed Duchess Anna Amalia at her summer residence in Tiefurt. A review of the performance for Anna Amalia was published by Karl August Böttiger, “Der Improvisator Pietro Scotes aus Verona,” Der Neue Teutsche Merkur (1802) 2, no. 6 (June 1802) 135–48.
Sebus, Johanna (28 December 1791–13 January 1809): A native of the tiny village of Brienen on the lower Rhine River just outside Kleve. After a dam burst, she rescued her mother but perished herself while trying to help others. Her body was recovered and buried in Rindern, her grave then being integrated into the new church that was built in 1872.
Seckendorf, Caroline Countess von, née von Uechtritz (26 January 1784–7 February 1854): Native of Dresden, the Üchtritz’s family estate, Lützschena, being located southeast of Schkeuditz in the Leipzig jurisdiction. From 1802 married to the Saxon legal counselor Friedrich Bernhard von Seckendorf (26 November 1772–19 April 1852; though they divorced in 1811[1812?]), who had studied law in Jena. The couple initially lived in Dresden, then from 1805 in Schleusingen. From 1818 Caroline was married to Dr. med. Amberg in Schleusingen. During June and July 1808 she was a guest in Karlsbad, in July also in Franzensbad. In Karlsbad that summer she seems to have been the close companion of Pauline Gotter (also close in age, Pauline having been born in 1786).
Seckendorf (-Aberdar), Franz Karl Leopold von (2 December 1775–6 May 1809): Writer, journalistic editor. Studied law in Göttingen and Jena, from 1798 legal administrator with the court in Weimar, where he quickly became a part of the literary circles around Goethe, Schiller, Herder, and Christoph Martin Wieland and with their encouragement published the anthology Blüthen griechischer Dichter and Neujahrs Taschenbuch von Weimar auf das Jahr 1801 in 1800. From 1802 administrator in Stuttgart, where he allegedly became involved in treasonous activity and was subsequently incarcerated in 1805 first in Schloss Solitude, then on the Hohenasperg. Released the same year, lived with relatives in Franconia 1805–08, publishing a Taschenbuch für Weimar in 1805 and in 1807/08 a Musenalmanach. Moved then to Vienna in 1808, where he published the journal Prometheus with J. L. Stoll (from 1808). Wounded in action and then killed in a barn fire in 1809 after having joined the Viennese militia at the outbreak of the war with France. Much of his work reflects his ardent patriotism.
Seckendorf, Karl Siegmund von (1744–85): Poet, musician. Till 1763 in Austrian, then Prussian military service. 1775–84 chamberlain in Weimar. Composed singspiels, plays, and published collections of folk tunes and lieder. First to set Goethe’s poem “Der König in Thule” to music (1782).
Seebeck, Thomas Johann (9 April 1770–10 December 1831): Physicist, private scholar, worked in connection with Goethe and the latter’s theory of colors. Worked on the phenomenon of phosphorescence and thermo-electricity.
Seidel (Seydel), Karl Günther Friedrich (dates unknown): From Hannover, matriculated as a student of theology in Göttingen on 8 May 1783, allegedly had an affair with Meta Forkel, also following her to Berlin in the autumn of 1788. Also worked later as a translator under Georg Forster, including with Meta Forkel.
Seidensticker, Johann Anton Ludwig (1760–1817): Law professor, studied in Helmstedt and Göttingen, attaining his doctorate in 1790 and becoming a private lecture at the latter, primarily for civil law. From 1804 in Jena, then as a senior justice councilor in Hannover.
Seidler, Amalie Christiane Dorothea (1766–1805): Daughter of Weimar consistory councilor J. W. Seidler, sister of Christiane and Dorothea Seidler, aunt of the painter Luise Seidler. See Amalie Reichard.
Seidler, August Gottfried Ludwig (1759–1825): University stable master in Jena, married to Sophie, née Kretschmar, from Sulza, father of Louise Seidler (born 1786). Not much is known about him, nor does Louise say much about him in her memoirs, except that “domestic quarrels” that annually increased in intensity prompted Louise’s mother to transfer her to the house of her grandmother, who had moved from Weimar to Jena when her own husband died. Hence references to visits to “the Seidlers” may in fact be referring to the grandmother, who was later able to move into a former monastery edifice with Louise.
Seidler, Johanne Christiane (1769–27 December 1812): Daughter of the Weimar consistory councilor J. W. Seidler (who was earlier a professor at the Carolinum in Braunschweig, then tutor to the later duke Carl August), sister of Anna Caroline, Amalie, and Dorothea Seidler, aunt of the painter Luise Seidler. Married Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs on 22 May 1792 (Jacobs proposed to her in her sister’s Amalie’s house); after her death in 1812, Jacobs married her sister Dorothea (Dorette) in 1814. For a list of her children, see Friedrich Jacobs. (Portrait probably by her niece Louise Seidler, after an oil painting privately owned in England; original lost; photo: Archiv Jacobs; photo from Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, “Reichards berühmte Verwandtschaft,” 30; courtesy of the author.)
Seidler, Dorothea (Dorette) (1771–1836): Fifth daughter of Weimar consistory councilor J. W. Seidler; sister of Amalie, Christiane, and Dorothea Seidler. Louise Seidler’s aunt. From 1817 second wife of Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs. (Portrait: preliminary study by Emil Jacobs [Museum für Regionalgeschichte und Volkskunde, Gotha) to an oil painting, 1835; privately owned; photo from Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, “Reichards berühmte Verwandtschaft,” 30; courtesy of the author.)
Seidler, Elisabeth Sophia, née Kretschmar (1750–1814): Eldest daughter of the merchant Carl August Kretschmar aus Stadt-Sulza, mother of Louise Seidler. It is often unclear whether she or her mother-in-law, Marie Elisabeth Pyrner (1729–99) (Louise’s grandmother), or — more likely — her aunt, Dorette Seidler, is meant, though the date of the former’s death excludes her from some instances.
Seidler, Johann Wilhelm (1718–77): Initially a professor at the Carolinum in Braunschweig, then high consistory counciler and tutor to the prince in Weimar; married to Marie Elisabeth, née; Pyrner (1729–99); grandfather of Louise Seidler. Father of Christiane, Anna Caroline, Amalie, and Dorothea Seidler. (Portrait: probably a copy by Louise Seidler after lost oil paintings; from Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, “Reichards berühmte Verwandtschaft,” 30; courtesy of the author.)
Seidler, Louise (Luise) Caroline Sophie (1786 Jena–1866 Weimar): Painter. Daughter of the university equerry in Jena, attended the girls boarding school in Gotha run by Madam Stieler, received artistic training there, in Jena, and at the academy in Dresden, where she became acquainted with Caspar David Friedrich. In Jena she knew Goethe from her very early years, her father’s house being located near Goethe’s Jena residence in the castle, and she was acquainted with virtually everyone associated with Jena’s cultural florescence during this period, including Schiller, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, the Humboldts, Schlegels, Ludwig Tieck, Clemens Brentano, H. E. G. Paulus, and especially with the family of Karl Friedrich Ernst Frommann, whose house she frequented. She became engaged to a physician with the French army in 1807, Jean-Baptist Paul Geoffroy, but he died of a fever after being transferred to Spain. Her parents sent her to Dresden to distract her from her grief. Her frequent visits to the gallery there convinced her to become a painter. She became a portrait painter, also painting Goethe’s portrait after he saw her copy Carlo Dolce’s St. Cecilia. Duke Karl August of Weimar invited her for a stay in Gotha to paint him, his wife, the duchess Karoline Amalia, and the princess from his first marriage. After the death of her mother in 1814 she moved back permanently to Jena to care for her father. A stipend from Karl August enabled her to spend a year in Munich (from 1817) for additional training; here she socialized with Pauline Gotter, who had married Schelling in 1812 after Caroline’s death. She traveled to Rome in 1818–23, where she was influenced by the Nazarenes and was acquainted with Johan and Philipp Veit, Dorothea’s sons from her earlier marriage with Simon Veit. She also spent time in Naples and Florence and later referred to this period as the happiest in her life. From 1824 in Weimar, from 1837 court portraitist and custodian of the ducal art collection. She traveled to Italy a second time for a year in 1832. Highly esteemed as a portraitist and copyist. Her autobiography Erinnerungen aus dem Leben der Malerin Louise Seidler, ed. Hermann Uhde (Berlin 1874) is an important historical source for this period. (Portrait: by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein, in Erinnerungen der Malerin Louise Seidler, ed. Hermann Uhde, 2 ed. [Berlin 1922], 228.)
Seidler, Marie Elisabeth, née; Pyrner (1729–2 November 1799): Wife of Johann Wilhelm Seidler; grandmother of Louise Seidler, with whom the latter lived in Jena because of domestic problems in her own parents’ household. Mother of Christiane, Anna Caroline, Amalie, and Dorothea Seidler. (Portrait: probably a copy by Louise Seidler after lost oil paintings; from Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, “Reichards berühmte Verwandtschaft,” 30; courtesy of the author.)
Seidler, Wilhelmine (1789–1866): Sister of Louise Seidler; from April 1814 married to Heinrich August Christian Strack (1783–1856), from 1813 pastor in Lengefeld (from 1813), from 1816 in Bachra , and from 1825 in Leubingen; from 1855 retired in Erfurt. Unlike her sister, Louise, Wilhelmine continue to live with her parents even after Louise was sent to live their paternal grandmother in 1791 because of domestic troubles in the family.
Selchow, Anne Johanne Dorothea, née von Hanstein (24 December 1747–17 May 1827): Daughter of Major Werner Ludwig von Hanstein auf Unterstein; second wife of Johann Heinrich Christian von Selchow, the latter from 1783 chancellor of the university in Marburg.
Selchow, Johann Heinrich Christian von (1732–95): Law professor in Göttingen, university chancellor in Marburg. Studied in Göttingen from 1746 to 1752, earning his law doctorate in 1755, from 1757 associate professor of law in Göttingen, from 1762 full professor, from 1780 member of the university legal advisory board, from 1782 university vice chancellor and professor of law in Marburg, eventually (1783) becoming chancellor. His eldest son, Heinrich Ludwig Karl, died on 17 December 1788. Divorced his first wife in 1762, then several years later married Anna Johanne Dorothea, née von Hanstein, daughter of Major Werner Ludwig von Hanstein auf Unterstein.
Selle, Christian Gottlieb (1748–1800): Physician and philosopher. Initially studied to be an apothecary, then studied medicine in Berlin, Göttingen, and Halle, practicing in Berlin after acquiring his doctorate. After stays in Saint Petersburg and as the physician to a bishop, he returned to Berlin in 1777. From 1785 personal physician to Friedrich the Great, with whom he carried on philosophical discussions, and later also to Friedrich Wilhelm II and Friedrich Wilhelm III. Philosophical adversary of Kant. Was especially interested in the treatment of fevers. Prolific medical author.
Semiramis: Mythical founder, with Ninus, of the Assyrian empire of Ninus or Nineveh. Semiramis, the daughter of the fish-goddess Derceto of Ascalon in Syriam was exposed as an infant because of her frailty but then miraculously saved by doves. Having become a beautiful woman, she married Onnes, of the king’s generals. At the siege of Bactra, she planned an attack on the citadel of the town, mounted the walls with a few brave followers, and captured the town. Ninus was so charmed by her bravery and beauty that he married her, her first husband committing suicide. After Ninus’s death, Semiramis succeeded him on the throne and became a figure surrounded by tales of marvelous deeds and heroic achievements, including the conquest of various nations in Asia, parts of Ethiopia, and Egypt. (William Smith, A Smaller Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology, and Geography, 11th ed. [London 1868], s.v. “Semiramis.”)
Senckenberg, Renatus Leopold Christian Karl, Imperial Baron von (1751–1800): Son of Heinrich Christian Senckenberg, from a prominent Frankfurt family, though Renatus Senckenberg was born in Vienna. From 1768 student of law and history in Göttingen, where he likely made the acquaintance of Johann David Michaelis. From 1772 interned at the imperial tribunal in Wetzlar. From 1774 travels in Italy, from 1775 judicial official for the Hessian government in Giessen. During a trip to Vienna in 1778, he was suspected of and imprisoned for having passed along from his father’s papers to the Electorate of the Palatinate a 1429 document of renunciation of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria severely compromising Austria’s interests in the Bavarian succession (War of the Bavarian Succession [July 1778–May 1779) between the Habsburg Monarchy and a Saxon–Prussian alliance to prevent the Habsburg acquisition of the Duchy of Bavaria). Having been banned from Austria territory, he became an administrative counsel for Hesse in Giessen, but resigned in 1784, living privately thereafter, publishing extensively on legal and historical topics.
Sérigny, Marianne Bertholet de (1774 in Tournai–1845 in Marseille): Actress and singer (prima donna) with the Bursay French theater company during its tenure in Braunschweig. On 14 July 1805 she married Antoine Dominique Joseph Hugues-Valaurie (born 1773) in Braunschweig, where he had emigrated.
Sevigne, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de (1626–96): French writer and lady of fashion, famous for the letters she wrote to her daughter, the Comtesse de Grignan, recounting quotidian events in Paris and Brittany.
Seuffert, Maria Apollonia (Appolonia), née Oehninger (2 November 1771–29 May 1832): Daughter of the wealthy Würzburg banker and merchant Johann Philipp Oehninger (born 1723). From 1792 wife of Johann Michael Seuffert. Died of a stroke. (Stadtarchiv Würzburg; Signatur:63/T 20.220.)
Seuffert, Johann Michael (5 January 1765–9 [10?] May 1829): Würzburg, later Bavarian statesman. Studied in Würzburg, receiving his licentiate in law in 1786 with a thesis, perhaps surprisingly, defending a people’s right to withdraw obedience from their sovereign under certain conditions (open transgressions of basic laws by the sovereign). His own sovereign, Franz Ludwig von Erthal, was so impressed that he gave Seuffert a stipend to study further in Göttingen, where he studied under Johann Stephan Pütter, Georg Ludwig Böhmer (Caroline’s father-in-law), Christian Gottlob Heyne, Johann Christoph Gatterer, August Ludwig Schlözer, et al. From 1788 associate professor of law in Würzburg, from 1792 also Hofrath and administrator for the electoral bishop, in which capacity he worked closely with Franz Ludwig von Erthal, defending the prince-bishoprics in publications in the late 1790s and exercising enormous administrative power. From 1792 married to Maria Apollonia (Appolonia), née Oehninger. During the period of imminent secularization, he traveled to Paris, Vienna, and in 1802 to Regensburg in an attempt to save the electoral bishopric of Würzburg. After it was determined that Würzburg would be ceded to Palatinate Bavaria, Seuffert was able to secure advantageous conditions for his sovereign. After the incorporation of Würzburg, Seuffert himself became a member of the commission for reorganizing the administration, thereafter acting as president of the supreme court and judiciary. Under Archduke Ferdinand, Seuffert also enjoyed complete trust and was again rewarded with a lofty position over the justice department and administration, a position he lost, however, after falling from favor with the archduke in 1810. When the Bavarian administration returned in 1814, his earlier position with the court was reactivated; in 1817 he was appointed head of the court of appeals.
Seydelmann, Crescentius Josephus (Seidelmann in letter 366) (1750 [year of baptism]–1829): Painter. Studied at the Dresden Art Academy, then in Rome in 1772–79 with a stipend from the Saxon electoral prince. From 1782 member of the Art Academy in Dresden, spent several more years in Rome before become second professor at the Academy in 1796.
Seyfried, Heinrich Wilhelm (1755–1800): Writer, theater author. Developed an inclination for the theater during his youth in Frankfurt, where numerous itinerant companies regularly performed. Studied law in Göttingen at the behest of his parents (where he may have become acquainted with the Michaelis family), though he decided to pursue a career in the theater instead. Opposition from his father, however, thwarted this plan. After returning to Frankfurt ca. 1780, however, he pursued his theater interests, establishing an amateur theater company and publishing several theater-related journals. In 1783 he genuinely left law to pursue a career in the theater, joining the company of Gustav Friedrich Wilhelm Grossmann. Although his own writings from this period have been lost, he was probably in contact with Schiller, whose plays were being performed in Frankfurt, and with Goethe, a native of Frankfurt. From 1785 he was playwright for the company of Daniel Gottlieb Kessel, then from the late 1780s lived as a freelance writer in Braunschweig (whence perhaps the missive to Caroline?) and Berlin, where he published several journals with other writers. None of his dramatic works survive today. (See Peter Hesselmann, Gereinigtes Theater? [Frankfurt 2002], 83).
Seyler, Abel (1730–1800): Theater director, head of an itinerant theater company. Took over the Hamburg company of Ackermann in 1766/67, engaging Gotthold Ephraism Lessing as dramatic director and Conrad Dietrich Ekhof as premier actor, though the enterprise folded the following year. From 1769 in the service of the Hannover court, though the behavior of the actress Sophie Hensel (see below) made it it necessary to move the company; a period of unstable itinerancy began. Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter contributed plays to this company. In late 1771 the company was engaged in Weimar as court company for three years, but the castle fire in 1774 brought that engagement to an abrupt end, whereupon the duchess Anna Amalia recommended the company to the court in Gotha. As the director of a theater company of some sixty players with its own orchestra, ballet, playwright, and set designer, Seyler was the most significant promoter of theater in Germany at the time. Married to the actress Friederike Sophie, née Sparmann, divorced Hensel (1738–89), one of the premier actresses of the period and one whom Lessing extols in several passages in his Hamburgische Dramaturgie. Seyler’s company performed in Leipzig, Weimar, Dresden, and Gotha, and he himself contributed to the establishment of the national theaters in Mannheim and Hamburg, directing the Mannheim theater in 1779–81 after leaving Gotha; again, however, his wife’s behavior led to the couple having to leave. In 1781–83 (and 1787–92) he was stage and artistic director at the Schleswig court theater, in 1783–87 in Hamburg. Seyler promoted the performance of Shakespeare and authors of the Storm and Stress period in Germany.
Seyler, Sophie Friederike, née Sparmann, divorced Hensel, married Seyler (1737[38?]–1789): Actress originally from Dresden who allegedly fled to the stage after her parents divorced and she was abused by the uncle with whom she had to live after her mother entered a convent. From 1755 wife of the actor Johann Gottlieb Hensel, whom she divorced in 1759. Eventually became a member of the company of Ackermann in Hamburg, where her difficult personality contributed to problems. From 1769 joined the company of Abel Seyler, whom she married in 1772, they then settling in Schleswig, where he directed the court theater. (Portrait: frontispiece to the Theater-Kalender auf das Jahr 1776 [Gotha].)
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English playwright and poet. Orthography in Caroline’s letters and in the correspondence and works of other German writers includes such variations as Shakespear and Shakspeare, even in the first edition of Wilhelm Schlegel’s translation, e.g., Shakspeare’s dramatische Werke, übersetzt von August Wilhelm Schlegel, vol. 1 (Berlin 1797). References will be made in the letters of Caroline and others to translations of Shakespeare by, among others, Wilhelm Schlegel, Christoph Martin Wieland, and Johann Joachim Eschenburg, as well as to several adaptations for the popular stage and numerous scholarly essays.
Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft, née Godwin (1797–1851): English novelist, from 1816 married to Percy Bysshe Shelley; author of various novels, perhaps best known as the author of the gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (London 1818), a story distantly indebted to the philosophy of nature in the lineage of Schelling and to experiments with animal electricity in the lineage Johann Wilhelm Ritter in Jena (the creature also reads Goethe).
Sidgwick, Cecily Wilhelmine (also known as Cass Ullman/Sidgwick and later in her family as Aunty Ciss) (1854 [or 1852?]–1934): Born in London, daughter of the German-Jewish merchant David Ullmann and his wife Wilhelmine Auguste, née Maas, but visited Germany as a young girl. Baptized a Christian in London in 1869 and in 1883 married the philosopher and logician Alfred Sidgwick (1850–1943), afterward living in Cornwall. Wrote over forty books, first as (Mrs.) Andrew Dean and then as Mrs. Alfred (Ullmann) Sidgwick, including novels, books on middle-class Jewish life, Home Life in Germany (1908) (the latter with illustrations), and the article “Student Life at the German Universities” (1900).
Siebold, Adam Elias von (1775–1828): Obstetrician, youngest son of Karl Kaspar von Siebold. Caroline probably knew him from his time studying in Göttingen, then also in Würzburg. Studied medicine in Würzburg, Jena (under Johann Christian Stark; he also became close friends with Johann Diederich Gries there), and Göttingen (under Friedrich Benjamin Osiander), receiving his doctorate in Würzburg in 1798. 1798 Habilitation in Würzburg, from 1799 professor (extraordinarius), from 1804 full professor (ordinarius), also directed the construction of the first obstetrics institute in Würzburg (opened in 1805). From 1800 married to Sophie, née Schaeffer. Contributed considerably to the development of the school of medicine in Würzburg. From 1816 professor in Munich.
Siebold, Johann Bartholomäus (Barthel) (1774–1814): Surgeon in Würzburg, son of Karl Caspar Siebold and the latter’s first wife, Veronica; elder brother of Elias Siebold. From 1803 senior surgeon at the Julius Hospital in Würzburg and professor of anatomy and surgery.
Siebold, Karl (Carl) Kaspar von (1736–1807): Anatomist, surgeon in Würzburg. From 1752–57 studied philosophy in Cologne, then received practical training in surgery from his father, a military surgeon. From 1760 first assistant in the Würzburg Julius Hospital, also studying natural sciences and medicine in Würzburg 1760–63, receiving his doctorate in 1769 after also studying in France, England, and Holland. Taught anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics in Würzburg. From 1803 senior medical administrator for the duchy of Würzburg. From 1766 married to Veronica, née Stang (1744–93); from 1800 married to Sabina Theresia Helena, née Leo (1761–1836).
Sierstorpff, Caspar (Kaspar) Heinrich Joseph von (1750–1842): Native of Hildesheim, from 1780 senior forestry and hunting administrator in Braunschweig, from 1776 husband of Marie Sophie von Sierstorpff, an acquaintance of Caroline in Braunschweig. Von Sierstorpff was also an art collector with a modest but select collection, including a piece by Dürer depicting the Madonna and child. (Portrait: Sylvan: Jahrbuch für Forstma4nner, Jäger und Jagdfreunde Auf die Jahre 1827-28; Inhaltsverzeichnis deutscher Almanache, Theodor Springmann Stiftung.)
Sierstorpff (Sierstorf, Sierdorpf), Theresia Marie Sophie von, née von Brabeck (1743–1808): Sister of Moritz von Brabeck of Söder Chateau, from 1776 wife of Caspar (Kaspar) Heinrich von Sierstorpff, senior forestry and hunting administrator in Braunschweig and art connoisseur.
Sieveking, Johann Georg Heinrich (1751–99): From 1782 husband of Johanna Margarete, née Reimarus in Hamburg. Wealthy merchant and zealous supporter of the French Revolution. Son of a Hamburg merchant (his mother was née Büsch), began in business with Voigt the elder, remained loyal to the French during the ensuing wars, profiting considerably from French business contacts later as well. Well traveled, including in America and Russia.
Sieveking, Johanna Margarete, née Reimarus (1760–1832): Daughter of Professor Johann Albert Heinrich Reimarus (1729–1814) (the physician who introduced the use of belladonna for cataract operations; he in his own turn was the son of Hermann Samuel Reimarus) and his first wife in Hamburg; from 1782 wife of the Hamburg merchant Georg Heinrich Sieveking (1751–99); Sophie Reimarus, née Henning, was A. H. Reimarus’s second wife.
Siéyès, Emmanuel-Joseph (1748–1836): Politician during the French Revolution who sympathized with pre-revolutionary reform movements and published a well-known pamphlet on the third estate, Qu’est-ce que le tiers état? (1789), a strong exposition of the sentiments of the middle class. Also one of the organizers of the coup in 1799 through which Napoleon became first consul.
Sillem (Silem, Sylm), Johann (1777–1845): From an established Hamburg family, studied law in Göttingen from 1796 (whence the connection with Friedrich Bouterwek), receiving his doctorate in 1799, from 1804 Amsterdam emissary in Hamburg, from 1821 director of the Hamburg municipal postal service. Did not marry until 1823, and after his death his wife, Elisabeth Friederike, née Grupen, relocated to Göttingen.
Silverstolpe, Axel Gabriel (10 August 1762–5 September 1816): Swedish writer, politician, amateur musician, translator, and court employee who between April and September 1802 visited several German publishing centers in order to establish contacts, including Hamburg, Berlin, Leipzig, Weimar, Jena, Dresden, Prague and Vienna. Described in a eulogy as having possessed a rather “arid, somewhat dry understanding, schooled in the rather dreary abstractions of French ideologues [Enlighteners],” with which he devoted himself to pedagogy, “in which he wanted everything modeled according to the views of a superficial, lifeless regularity” (Hermes oder kritisches Jahrbuch der Literatur 20 , 4:297). (Portrait: gouache by J. E. Bolinder [?] ca. 1800.)
Sinclair, Isaac von (1775–1815): Diplomat, writer. A native of Homburg vor der Höhe, studied Law in Tübingen (1792–93) and Jena (1794–95), albeit without attaining his degree. In Jena, however, he attended Fichte’s lectures and was a member of the “Society of Free Men” with Johann Diederich Gries. He also made Friedrich Hölderlin’s acquaintance there. Entered diplomatic service in Homburg vor der Höhe in 1798. He arranged the position as tutor for Hölderlin in the family of the Frankfurt banker Gontard, with whose wife, Susette, Hölderlin fell in love, after which Sinclair arranged positions for Hölderlin in Homburg. Sinclair was incarcerated after being falsely accused of a plot to kill the prince elector Friedrich II of Württemberg. Sinclair lost his administrative positions in Homburg as a result of the changes to the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, working thereafter as a writer and journalist in Berlin. It was then also that he broke off his connection with Hölderlin, whose mental illness had considerably progressed. From 1814 in Vienna.
Sintenis, Christian Friedrich (1750–1820): Theologian, writer. Studied theology and philosophy in Wittenberg, from 1776 consistory councilor in Zerbst, from 1791 senior pastor at St. Trinitatis in Zerbst, also professor of theology and metaphysics at the gymnasium there until 1797. An extremely popular preacher and pastoral counselor in Zerbst, author of devotional and edificatory literature, sentimental-moralizing family novels, including the novel Theodor, oder über die Bildung der Fürstensöhne zu Fürsten, 2 vols. (Berlin 1785) and Menschenfreuden aus meinem Garten vor Z[erbst], 2 vols. (2nd ed. Wittenberg, Zerbst 1778–80).
Smith, Adam (1723–90): Scottish economist and professor of several different subjects in Glasgow (till 1764); perhaps best known for his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), an influential study of political economy. From 1778 in Edinburgh, where Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer apparently visited him in 1789 shortly before Smith’s death on 17 July 1790.
Smollet, Tobias George (1721–71): Scottish author. Trained as a surgeon, led a colorful life in London, though also traveled extensively on the Continent and to Jamaica. Prolific writer and translator, also publishing a successful history of Englnd (1757–58). His writing tended to be controversial, a characteristic which during his lifetime sometimes contributed to his lack of literary success. He wrote pieces satirizing London life and otherwise tried to “arouse indignation . . . against the vicious disposition of the world,” as he put it in the preface to his first novel, The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748). The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771), also an epistolary novel, is often considered his best work, though also his mellowest. After publishing his own epistolary Travels through France and Italy in 1766, Laurence Sterne gave him the nickname “Smelfungus.”
Socher, Laurentius Erdmannus Gebhart Mandatarius Joseph (1755–1834): Priest and member of the Illuminati in Bavaria. Later professor of philosophy in Landshut with an orientation to Kant; Schelling’s followers opposed him there, and he left in 1805 to return to his duties as a priest in Kehlheim.
Socrates (ca. 470–399 BCE): Greek philosopher, taught by means of posing questions to a dialogue partner designed to elicit implicit knowledge and thus to draw from the partner an admission of the thing to be proved.
Soden, Count Friedrich Julius Heinrich von (1754–1831): Writer, theater director, publicist, Ansbach-Prussian politician. Studied in Erlangen, Jena, and Altdorf. Initially worked in Ansbach administrative service. 1792–96 in Prussian service, when Ansbach itself became Prussian. Withdrew to private life on his estate near Bamberg, where he also founded the Bamberg theater in 1802, then the theater in Würzburg in 1804, also directing the latter. Also published fiction, plays, and translations, but was best known for his works on national economics.
Solger, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand (1780–1819): Philosophical writer esp. on aesthetics during the Romantic period. Studied under Schelling in Jena, from 1809 professor in Frankfurt/Oder, from 1811 in Berlin. Strongly influenced by Greek philosophy and drama, esp. tragedy.
Soltau, Dietrich Wilhelm (1745–1827): Translator and writer. Initially had his own business in St. Petersburg, but from ca. 1789 lived as a private scholar, writer, and translator in Lüneburg. Translations included not only Cervantes’s Don Quixote (1800), but also Cervantes’s short stories (1801), Boccacio’s Decameron (1803), and numerous works from the English. His translations were so well received that the university in Göttingen awarded him an honorary doctorate. Generally viewed as one of the foremost translators of modern literature during the period alongside Wilhelm Schlegel and Johann Diederich Gries. (Portrait: 1777, by Carl Ludwig Christineck; Museum für das Fürstentum Lüneburg.)
Sommer, Johann Christoph (1741–22 February 1802): Court physician, professor of surgery, and director of obstetrics in Braunschweig; translated copious foreign works on surgery into German. Unfortunately, after he died conditions in the maternity hospital in Braunschweig had severely deteriorated. In any case, when Gotthold Ephraim Lessing died in Braunschweig in February of 1781, Sommer performed the autopsy. Christian Rudolf Wilhelm Wiedemann succeeded Sommer in 1802.
Sömmerring, Margaretha Elisabeth, née Grunelius (1768–1802): A Frankfurt native, from 6 March 1792 wife of Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring. A close friend in Frankfurt of Susette Gontard, the model for Friedrich Hölderlin’s character “Diotima.”
Sömmerring, Samuel Thomas von (1755–1830): Physician, physiologist, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist, physicist. From 1774 studied medicine in Göttingen, received his doctorate in 1778, thereafter spent a year in the Netherlands and the British Isles, including London, where he met Georg Forster, who helped him obtain a professorship at the Collegium Carolinum in Kassel in 1779, where he also met the historian Johannes Müller and Goethe, the latter of whom was attracted to Sömmerring’s work in comparative anatomy. From October 1784 professor of anatomy and physiology in Mainz, where he published a six-volume work on human anatomy that remained the standard work during the period. Sömmerring and Johannes Müller, the latter having also moved to Mainz in 1786, secured the university librarianship for Georg Forster, who had been teaching in Vilnius and who in the meantime had married Therese Heyne; the couple arrived in 1788 and lived next door to Sömmerring. On 6 March 1792 Sömmerring married Margaretha Elisabeth Grunelius from Frankfurt; uncertainties associated with the new Mainz Republic and the political and personal estrangement from Forster prompted them to move to Frankfurt in December, where he took the position of city physician (he would later treat the poet Friedrich Hölderlin, who tutored the children of the Gontard family, whose wife, Susette—Hölderlin’s “Diotima”—was a close friend of Sömmerring’s wife). He published two widely read essays, one on the guillotine (1795), in which he argued that the severed head was still capable of experiences, and one on the soul (1796), in which he maintained that the soul resides in the ventricular fluid of the brain, where the sensory nerves are unified into a single experiencing self. From 1804(?) Hofrath and member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Munich. Also published on the human senses of sight (1801), hearing (1806), taste (1806), and smell (1809). Returned to Frankfurt in 1820, where he continued to practice until his death. (Portrait: by Carl Wilhelm Bender.)
Sonnenberg, Franz Anton Joseph Ignaz Maria von (5 September 1779–22 Novemberg 1805): Epic and lyric poet. From 1798 studied law (unwillingly) in Jena, thereafter traveling to Vienna, Geneva, Paris, and various parts of Germany before settling in Drakendorf near Jena in the summer of 1794. After reading Klopstock’s epic poem Der Messias while a patriotic Gymnasium student, he began his own Christian epic on that model, Das Weltende: Erstlinge (1801), a piece that suffered from excessively passionate diction and a lack of structure, though he nonetheless declared his intention of becoming a religious poet. In 1803 an unhappy love affair, in which the woman’s father’s disinclination kept her from accepting his marriage proposal, plunged him into despair. In 1804/05 in Jena he began another epic on the end of the world, this time in hexameters, Donatoa oder das Weltende, 4 vols. (Halle 1806–7), becoming so engrossed in his work that he tended to neglect to eat or sleep, avoided company, and lived as a veritable recluse. Although the political events of 1805 filled him with enthusiasm for the resurgence of Germany, the news of the defeat of Ulm in 1805 plunged him into renewed despair. Sonnenberg committed suicide by throwing himself out the window of his room in Jena. (Portrait by unknown artist; Berühmtheiten Münsters, ed. Friedrich Becker [Münster (ca. 1860)], 16; Münster Univ.; und Landesbibliothek.)
Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg (1759–1828): Niece of Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg, from 26 September 1776 second wife (now as (Maria Fyodorovna) of Czar Paul I of Russia; mother of Czar Alexander I, whom, however she was not allowed to raise, he being taken away by her mother-in-law, Catherine the Great.
Sophocles (497–406 BCE): Second of the three great Greek tragedians following Aeschylus and preceding Euripides. Of his one hundred twenty plays, seven plays have survived in their entirety: Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, Electra, Trachinia, Ajax, and Philoctetes.
Sorg, Franz Lothar Augustin Raimund (31 August 1773–4 March 1827): Physician, professor of physiology and chemistry in Würzburg, director of the physical sciences collections at the university. Native of Würzburg, where he also received his doctorate in medicine on 25 August 1798 under the tutelage of Georg Pickel. From 16 September 1802 professor of experimental physics, from 1804 also of chemistry, from September 1809 full professor in both subjects. Sorg was consulted when the Bavarian administration renovated the mineral-springs spa in Bocklet, for which service he was elevated to the status of medical Rath in 1814.
Soult, Nicolas Jean (1769–1851): Marshal of France, enlisted in the military at the age of sixteen, from 1792 in the grenadiers, from 1796 general of brigade. Fought in Switzerland and then in Italy with Masséna, where the two were besieged in Genoa, putting up an obstinate defense. In command of preparing troops for the anticipated invasion of England. Accompanied Napoleon during the campaign of 1805, distinguishing himself esp. at Austerlitz, then at Jena and Eylau. From 1808 served in Spain, from 1813 in Germany, then again in Spain, where in February 1814 he was defeated at Orthez, and on 10 April at Toulouse. Submitted to the new government after Napoleon’s abdication, but rejoined Napoleon upon the latter’s return. Banished after Waterloos, recalled in 1819. From 1831 minister of war.
Spalding, Johann Joachim (1714–1804): Protestant theologian, author of popular philosophical works. After studying theology, philosophy, and ancient languages in Rostock and Greifswald worked as a private house tutor before earning his doctorate in 1736. His Betrachtung über die Bestimmung des Menschen (published anonymously in 1748) has been called the manifesto of German Enlightenment theology; his argumentation proceeds without recourse to Christian revelation or dogmatic authority. Had various pastorates before becoming provost and senior consistory member in Berlin and preacher at the churches of St. Nicolai and St. Marien, resigning in 1788 after the Wöllner edict. The philosophy of Christian Wolff and the English deists made him suspicious of orthodoxy and prompted his interest in Enlightenment thinking, and his late Religion, eine Angelegenheit des Menschen (1797) summarized his understanding of religion and its intimate connection with morality.
Sparr, Johann Gottfried August (13 January 1772–30 January 1811): Native of Gotha, from 1803 teacher at the Gymnasium there. From 1808 head of the school system in Nordhausen (ADB).
Spazier, Johann Gottlieb Karl (1761–1805): Pedagogue, journal editor, writer. After working as an actor, singer, and musical accompanist, Spazier studied philosophy and theology in Halle, earning his doctorate in 1797, thereafter working as a teacher, private house tutor, and professor in Giessen, Neuwied, and Berlin. From 1793 editor of the Berlinische Musikalische Zeitung, from 1796 head of a school in Dessau, from 1800 in Leipzig, where he founded and edited the Zeitung für die elegante Welt. Author of pedagogical, philosophical, and theological works, but also wrote on music.
Speck (Spek), Specht: According to Luise Wiedemann’s memoirs, allegedly did a portrait of her brother Philipp: either the Dresden painter and engraver Friedrich August Speck (born 1747), or the Gotha court painter Chrsitian Ernst Specht († 1806), who also painted Georg Christoph Lichtenberg.
Spinoza, Benedictus (Baruch) (1632–77): Dutch Jewish philosopher. Expelled from the synagogue and compelled to leave Amsterdam in 1656, moving thereafter to Rijnsburg and elsewhere, finally settling in The Hague in 1670, where he earned a living as a lens grinder. His thoroughgoing rationalist religious philosophy and biblical studies anticipated historical biblical criticism. Generally viewed as the most consistent modern representative of pantheism, his own system viewing God as the infinite substance, which is its own cause and from which the world then logically follows as either bodies or ideas, modes reflecting the two attributes of the substance known to human beings, namely, extension and thought, a position seeming to justify the inclination to see God in nature or God and nature as one.
Spittler, Louise Christiane [Elise] Friderica (Lilly), née Eisenbach (1 March 1762–11 October 1819): From 26 May 1782 wife of Ludwig Timotheus Spittler; she was, like Spittler himself, a Swabian and already related by marriage, being a sister of Spittler’s eldest brother’s wife.
Spittler, Ludwig Timotheus (1752–1810) and his wife, Louise Christiane Friderica von Spittler (Lilly) (1761–after 1820): Theologian, historian, statesman. A native of Stuttgart in Württemberg, Spittler studied theology in Tübingen 1771–75, after which he traveled in Germany (meeting, among others, Lessing, whom he admired), then became a tutor at the Tübingen seminary in 1777. From 1779 lectured on church history and the history of dogma in Göttingen (publishing Grundriss der Geschichte der christlichen Kirche in 1782, the year in which he also married), from 1784 professor of history in Göttingen and member of the Society of Sciences. Returned to Stuttgart in 1797, becoming a Geheimrath in Württemberg and heading the educational administration there. Although Spittler was awarded considerable distinctions by the new duke after assuming these duties, ultimately he was shoved aside by others. From 1806 trustee at the Tübingen Stift (seminary), from 1807 state minister. Viewed as founder of German territorial historiography and laid some of the foundation for a comparative-historical examination of the history of dogma. (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 349.)
Spix, Johann Baptist (1781–1826): Zoologist, scientific explorer, though with an inclination to rather fantastic theories. Initially studied theology in Bamberg and Würzburg, then switched to medicine in 1804, which he pursued in the spirit of the emergent philosophy of nature, though also inclined to engage rather fantastical notions (as was Lorenz Oken). Attained his doctorate in 1806 in Würzburg, where he was closely acquainted with Adalbert Friedrich Marcus and Schelling, thereafter practicing medicine in Bamberg until 1811, when Schelling’s influence helped him attain a position at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Munich. Under Schelling’s influence, he began studying comparative anatomy and zoology. Under the auspices of the Academy, he undertook scientific journeys to the Mediterranean, then 1817–20 to Brazil. (Anonymous portrait: Bavarian Academy of Science and Humanities.)
Stadion, Friedrich Lothar Count von (1761–1811): Diplomat. Although he possessed cathedral benifices in Mainz and Würzburg, he chose not to take advantage of them after studying law in Nancy and Göttingen, instead entering the service of Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal to participate in the latter’s enlightened Catholic state reforms. Stadion was the representative of electoral Mainz, Bamberg, and Würzburg in the allied headquarters and in Rastatt. From 1802, after secularization, he worked with Carl Theodor von Dalberg, then entered Austrian service in 1804, serving as an envoy for Bohemia at the Reichstag. From 1807 envoy in Munich (acquainted with Bettina von Arnim), supporting the uprising against Napoleon in 1809. After the Peace of Schönbrunn in 1810 he withdrew to his Bohemian estate. Elder brother of Philipp von Stadion (1763–1824), the Austrian foreign minister in 1805–9 who was dismissed after the Austrian defeat and replaced by Wenzel Lothar von Metternich in 1809.
Staël, Anne Louise Germaine de, née Necker (1766–1817): French-speaking Swiss writer and novelist, salonière. (Caroline will on occasion spell her name Staal.) Born in Paris, daughter of Jacques Necker, the banker whom Louis XVI enlisted to right the finances of the French monarchy; in 1786 married the Swedish ambassador, Baron Erik de Staël-Holstein († 1802), who was 17 years older (formal separation in 1797). Hosted her own salon in Paris. During the Revolution, she became involved in power struggles and in 1793 fled to England and then to Coppet, Switzerland, to her family’s estate, which became a new meeting place for leading intellectuals. In 1795 she returned to Paris but was ultimately exiled. After a return to France in December 1796, conflicts with Napoleon resulted in yet another exile from Paris in October 1803, after which she journeyed to Weimar and Berlin (1803–4). She met Wilhelm Schlegel in Berlin and convinced him to return with her to Coppet (her father had died that April) as tutor to her children, though he also enjoyed considerable freedom for his academic work and a pension that continued even after her death. He essentially remained a member of the “Coppet circle” until her death, considerably influenced her book on Germany, De l’Allemagne (1810; confiscated by Napoleon, republished in London 1813), and accompanied her on numerous journeys, including to Italy (departure December 1804, remained till June 1805), Vienna (departure December 1808), all the way to St. Petersburg and Moscow (1812; she continued on to London) in flight from Napoleon’s agents. She returned to Paris after Napoleon’s defeat. Attained european-wide fame as a novelist during her own lifetime. (Portrait: Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, Neuchâtel.)
Children of Germaine de Staël mentioned in this correspondence:
Auguste de Staël (1790–1827);
Albert de Staël (1792–1813);
Albertine de Staël (1797–1838), from 1816 married to Victor de Broglie (1785–1870).
Stahl, Konrad (Conrad) Dietrich (1771[73?]–1833): Mathematician, physicist. Earned his doctorate in 1795 and became a lecturer in mathematics that same year in Jena, then an associate professor in 1799 (also in physics). Friend of Johann Diederich Gries in Jena. From 1802 professor of mathematics at the Gymnasium in Coburg, from 1804 associate professor in Würzburg. After refusing the oath in 1806 after the territory changed hands (as did Schelling), he was transferred to the university in Landshut till it was transferred to Munich in 1826, where he then taught mathematics and science. Known for his work with the theory of combinations, also publishing in the field while in Jena (Grundriss der Combinationslehre nebst Anwendung derselben auf die Analysis (Jena, Leipzig 1800), which he dedicated to Goethe.
Stapfer, Philipp Albert (1766–1840): From Bern; from October 1789 student of theology in Göttingen; from 1792 teacher, from 1796 head of the Political Institute in Bern, also professor of theology there, from 1798 Swiss minister and envoy in Paris.
Stark (also Starck), Johann August von (1741–1816): Protestant theologian suspected of being a “crypto-Catholic.” After studying theology and Near Eastern languages in Göttingen, became a teacher in St. Petersburg in 1763, then traveled to England and Paris, where he received a position as an interpreter of ancient Near Eastern manuscripts, on the basis of which the university in Göttingen awarded him a masters degree in 1766. Returned to St. Petersburg in 1768, allegedly in “secret matters,” then in 1769 became associate professor in Königsberg. From 1770 second court preacher in Königsberg, from 1772 full professor of theology, earning his theological doctorate in 1773. From 1776 senior court preacher. His advocacy of Freemasonry and Neologie, approximately the German version of Deism, prompted criticism among his colleagues. From 1777 professor of philosophy in Mitau (Jelgava, Latvia), where he wrote an apology of Freemasonry (1778) and other writings supportive of the order. From 1781 senior court preacher and consistory councilor in Darmstadt. His connections with Catholics and Freemasons led to charges that he participated in secret orders and was essentially a crypto-Catholic, charges coming especially from representatives of the Berlin Enlightenment after 1786, to whom he responded with Über Krypytokatholicismus, Proselytenmacherei, Jesuitismus, geheime Gesellschaften, und besonders die ihm selbst gemachten Beschuldigungen (2 vols.; 1777, 1778; a three-volume addendum was published in 1788). Although his professional position was never threatened (he was even ennobled in 1811), he never quite silenced these suspicions, not least because toward the end of his life he advocated a reunification of the various Christian denominations under Catholicism. (Portrait from Karl Bugge, Det Danske Frimureries Historie .)
Stark (also Starck), Johann Christian (the Elder) (1753–1811): Professor of medicine and physician in Jena. Studied obstetrics in Jena, attained his doctorate in 1777, from 1779 associate professor of medicine there. Established a clinic in 1781 from which the university polyclinic then developed. Published a book on obstetrics in 1782, then acquired renown after performing a successful Caesarean section, becoming full professor in 1784 and director of the obstetrics institute in Jena, also inventing or improving various instruments, including forceps, pelvimeter, and birthing chair. From 1785 Hofrath and personal physician to the ducal family in Weimar, especially of Duchess Anna Amalia. From 1787 edited Archiv für Geburtshilfe, the first German journal for obstetrics (till 1804, after which it was incorporated into Elias von Siebold’s Lucina). Also published on pharmacology, pediatrics, and tetanus. Personal physician of Schiller 1791–1805, also of Goethe and Herder. Also treated Friedrich von Hardenberg and his fiancée Sophie von Kühn; Caroline recommended Stark to Hardenberg to treat his second fiancée, Julie von Charpentier. From 1804 director of the mental institute. Also introduced smallpox vaccinations in Saxon-Weimar. (Portrait: frontispiece to vol. 1 of Johann Christian Stark, Handbuch zur Kenntnis und Heilung innerer Krankheiten des menschlichen Körpers [Jena 1799].)
Stark (also Starck), Johann Christian (the Younger) (1769–1837): Physician in Jena, nephew of Johann Christian Stark the Elder. From 1790 studied theology, then medicine in Jena, attaining his doctorate in 1793. From 1796 associate professor in Jena, from 1804 Saxon-Weimar Rath, from 1805 full professor of surgery. Treated the wounded after the battle of Jena in 1806. From 1809 Hofrath, from 1811 full professor of surgery and obstetrics, and after the death of his uncle also director of the mental institute. From 1812 personal ducal physician. Head of Weimar medical administration, especially active in obstetrics.
Steffens, Henrik (1773–1845): Natural scientist, philosopher of nature, from 1803 married to Johanna, née Reichardt. Although born in Norway, Steffens was of German descent on his father’s side, who was originally from Holstein. Because of his father’s position as a regimental physician, the family moved often, finally settling in Copenhagen, where in 1790 Steffens began studying theology before switching to natural history and ultimately to mineralogy. Participated in 1794/95 in an expedition to the west coast of Norway, then continued his studies in Kiel, becoming a lecturer there with the understanding that he would continue work toward a doctorate (which he earned in 1797). After developing an interest in aesthetics and philosophy, especially Schelling, whose works, as he put it, “determined the course of the rest of his life” (Steffens was one of few early followers of Schelling who never lost his admiration for him), he moved to Jena in 1798, where he met Fichte, Goethe, Wilhelm Schlegel and Caroline, the Frommanns, and others, then visited Berlin in 1799, where he met Tieck, Schleiermacher, and Friedrich Schlegel. There is some evidence he may have had an amorous interest in Auguste Böhmer. He then studied in Freiberg under the mineralogist and geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner and became more closely acquainted with Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). The result of the stimulating time for him was his well-received Beiträge zur inneren Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801), in which he sought to unite the various impulses from the natural sciences with Schelling’s emergent philosophy of nature in tracing a view of nature that creates in a stepwise fashion from the “anorganic” processes and products up to the free human personality. Although his hopes of getting a teaching position were in vain when he returned to Copenhagen in 1802, his public lectures there contributed considerably to the spread of Romanticism in Denmark. In September 1803 he married Johanna Reichardt (1783–1855), daughter of the composer Johann Freidrich Reichardt. From 1804 full professor of the philosophy of nature, physiology, and mineralogy in Halle, where Schleiermacher was his colleague and friend and where his lectures enjoyed considerable success. After Napoleon dissolved the university in Halle after the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, Steffens received a leave of absence from the Prussian government, part of which he spent in Holstein, Hamburg, and Lübeck. Returned to Halle in 1808, though his participation in patriotic, anti-French activities drew the attention of the French police and he was glad to accept a position as professor of physics and the philosophy of nature in Breslau. From 1832 professor in Berlin, 1834 as rector. His ten-volume memoirs, Was ich erlebte (1840–44), are an invaluable source for the history of this period, not least in Weimar and Jena. (Portrait: frontispiece to Richard Petersen, Henrik Steffens: Ein Lebensbild, trans. Al. Michelsen [Gotha 1884].)
Steffens, Johanna, née Reichardt (1784–1848): Daughter of Johann Friedrich and Johanna (née Alberti) Reichardt in Berlin, from 4 September 1803 wife of Henrik Steffens; although Caroline mentions on 16 September 1803 that Steffens was currently in Giebichenstein “picking up his wife,” it is unclear from whom she had that news.
Stein, Charlotte Baroness von, née von Schardt (1742–1827): From 1764 wife of Baron Josias Friedrich von Stein (1735–93), an equerry for the Weimar court, she also a lady-in-waiting at the court. Had an intense relationship with Goethe after his arrival in Weimar in 1775, but his abrupt departure for Italy in 1786 strained the relationship, which foundered once and for all when Goethe took in Christiane Vulpius after his return in 1788 (moderate reconciliation in 1801). Although her letters to Goethe were destroyed, his to her were published in 1848–51. (Portrait: ca. 1780; Nationale Forschungs- u. Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur. Foto: J. Pietsch, Leipzig. Offsetdruck: Graphischer Betrieb Jütte, Leipzig. Im Briefmarkenfeld: RG 6/2/88 00020; also in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 203.)
Stein, Heinrich Friedrich Karl von (1757–1831): Prussian statesman best known for his progressive reforms in the Prussian state; also played a key role during the wars of liberation against Napoleonic rule and as an advisor to the Russian czar (having been outlawed by Napoleon, he fled for a time to Moscow and was there when Wilhelm Schlegel and Madame de Staël came through in 1812). He originally studied law and political science in Göttingen (from 1773), then settled in Berlin in 1780, where a friend of his parents secured an immediate administrative position for him in the ministry of mining and smelting, where he spent the next thirteen years. In this capacity, he accompanied the Prussian minister of mining on tours of inspection of mining facilities in Galicia, Silesia, Thuringia, and the Harz Mountains. It was possibly (but not certain) during one of these journeys that he met Caroline in Clausthal. From 1784 he was also head of mining and factories in Westphalia.
Steinlein, Kaspar Joseph (25 July 1752–after 1814): A native of Bamberg, earned his philosophical doctorate on 3 September 1770, then his licentiate in jurisprudence in 1774. From 1777 legal counselor in the Abbey Banz, from 1778 Bamberg Hofrath. Advanced under the reign of Franz Ludwig, from 1781 with a seat in the government cabinet. From 1785 till 1788 director of the imperial territorial court. Eventually a Geheimrath (privy counselor), having helped in territorial disputes with Prussia. From 1802 cathedral legal counselor in Bamberg, from 1803 director of the First Deputation of the Bamberg Territorial Directorate. Retired in 1806 to Nürnberg.
Stengel, Georg Count von (1 October 1775–24 April 1824): Native of Mannheim, son of Stephan Christian von Stengel also mentioned in this correspondence; the family moved to Munich in 1780. Bavarian general commissar, state counselor in Munich. Interested in natural history and art as a young man, and a talented artist himself. Studied law in Heidelberg from 1791 under Friedrich von Zentner. From 1793, now also interested in agriculture, he managed an estate in Calw in Württemberg, returning to Munich then in 1795, later continuing his legal studies in Ingolstadt and returning to Munich in 1796 to begin his career and to prepare for state service, which he began in April 1799 in the general territorial directorate, including mining affairs. From March 1801 a regular member of the Bavarian Academy of Science and Humanities. From 1803 worked in the state directorate for national economic affairs in Bavaria as well. From 7 May 1805 married to his aunt (his father’s youngest sister), with whom he had had a relationship since his youth, Katharina von Stengel (a dispensation from Rome was needed because of the close kinship). Continued an active and multifaceted career as a high state territorial administrator in various capacities, from September 1808 also in tax and finance departments as well as agriculture. He was a patron of the arts, and welcomed artists into his home, encouraging the young ones as well and introducing them to more established artists. His social life included “art evenings” at his house in Munich at which discussions were held each week on topics of art and of specific works of art from his own collection. He and his wife had 5 children.
Stengel, Katharina (28 May 1778–3 April 1861): A native of Seckenheim near Mannheim, sister of Stephan Christian von Stengel (also mentioned in this correspondence). From 7 May 1805 married to her nephew Gregor von Stengel in Munich (a dispensation from Rome was needed because of the close kinship), though the couple temporarily lived elsewhere as well depending on his service assignments with the Bavarian state. One of Caroline’s closest friends in Munich.
Stengel, Stephan Christian, Baron von (1750–1822): Politician, philosopher, graphic artist. From 1773 cabinet secretary in the service of the prince elector of the Palatinate, thereafter in high administrative positions in Mannheim. In 1799 he moved to Munich with Maximilian Montgelas. His subsequent appointment as vice president of the Electorate of the Palatinate was reversed, and instead in 1803 he became a privy councilor and vice president of the newly established Bamberg territorial directorate, then in 1808 (after its reorganization) general commissar of the Main District.
Stephanie ( Stephan), Johann Gottlieb (1741–1800): Actor, theater director, playwright. After studying law in Halle and a varied career in the military, settled from 1763 in Vienna as a recruiting officer, where he also participated in amateur theater performances with his brother, eventually landing an engagement in one of Vienna’s professional theaters, remaining as playwright until 1799. Adapted and translated numerous Italian and French plays, wrote bourgeois comedies and plays with military settings. One of the most successful representatives of the Viennese singspiel (author of librettos for Mozart, e.g., Die Entführung aus dem Serail ).
Sternberg, Johann Heinrich (15 April 1772–19 July 1809): Professor of medicine in Marburg who was executed in connection with the summer insurrection there in 1809. A native of Goslar, received a solid education as a boy, including in the classical languages and the works of Homer and Horace. Also fond of the arts and esp. music. From 1793 studied medicine in Göttingen, from 1797 municipal and mining physician in Elbingerode in the Harz Mountains (similar to Caroline’s first husband, Franz Wilhelm Böhmer in Clausthal). 1800—4 back in Goslar, where he married Charlotte, née Siemens, daughter of the town director. Sternberg was in good financial shape, his father having died while Sternberg was still quite young, so he did not charge for his medical services. From October 1804 succeeded Ernst Gottfried Baldinger in the medical school in Marburg, thus becoming a colleague of Fritz Michaelis, Caroline’s brother. By 1809 he was head of the Marburg general clinic and taught courses on general medicine. Although he was a popular physician and professor, he came into conflict with several of his colleagues because of his zeal in trying to reform medical practice, acquiring thereby also the reputation of a kind of revolutionary. He also chafed under Westphalian rule, whereas many of his colleagues had no problem with it. He was the primary organizer of the Marburg insurrection that was eventually led by Andreas Emmerich and was executed in Kassel for his part. See supplementary appendix 443.1.
Sterne, Laurence (1713–68): English novelist. A clergyman by profession and apparently a popular preacher at York Minster, among other places. In 1744 he began his multivolume novel Tristram Shandy (1759, 1761, 1765), which is often viewed as the precursor of the modern stream-of-consciousness novel (Sterne acknowledged the influence of John Locke’s Essay concerning Human Understanding). Health problems (tuberculosis) prompted a trip to France in 1762 with his wife and daughter; he stayed till 1764 (his family never returned), then returned again in 1765 and undertook an eight-month tour of France and Italy, the experiences from which served as the basis for his novel A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (1767), a novel whose aim Sterne himself avowed was “to teach us to love the world and our fellow creatures” and which influenced several German writers during the latter part of the eighteenth century. In parodying other travelogues, he evokes the severe judgments of a certain “Smelfungus” (possibly a caricature of Smollet) in contrast to his own more tolerant assessments.
Stieglitz, Jeannette (Jente), née Ephraim, later Jeanette Sophie (1764–1843): Childhood friend of Dorothea Veit and Wilhelm von Humboldt, from 1792 wife of Johann (Israel) Stieglitz, converted to Christianity in 1800.
Stieglitz, Johann (Israel Stieglitz) (1767–1840): Physician. Studied at the Gymnasium in Gotha, then philosophy at the university in Berlin, and from 1786 medicine in Göttingen, earning his doctorate in 1789, thereafter working as a popular and trusted general practitioner in Hannover. Acquainted with Wilhelm von Humboldt from university days in Göttingen, and with the Mendelssohn family from his days in Berlin. From 1792 married to Jeannette née Ephraim, also of Berlin, a childhood friend of Dorothea Veit. Converted to Christianity in 1800. From 1802 court physician in Hannover, from 1805 member of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina, from 1806 senior personal physician, from 1820 Hofrath, from 1832 senior medical councilor, and ultimately head of all medical colleges (both civil and military) in the Hannover territory (career options not open to Jews). Prolific reviewer of medical publications and rigorous opponent of Brownianism and Mesmerism. Possibly the author of a critical review of Andreas Röschlaub in the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1802 to which Schelling refers. (Portrait: Engraving by J. F. Lambertz.)
Stieler, Heinrich Adolph (Adolf Friedrich) (26 February 1775–13 [or 16] March 1836): Son of Gotha mayor Caspar Hermann Stieler and the latter’s second wife, Henriette Johanna Carolina, née von Avemann (1749–1812) (who was the daughter of Heinrich Ludwig von Avemann [1696–1761] and Magdalena Christine Caroline (Letta), née von Wangenheim [1719–81], the latter of whom married Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter’s father in second marriage for both in 1762). Studied law and geography in Jena and Göttingen 1793–96, from 1797 a legal administrator in Gotha in various capacities and with various titles. On 15 January 1805 married Friederike Madelung (1779–1859). A cartographer by avocation, which he also taught in Gotha. Did the cartographic illustrations for a book Karl Ernst Adolph von Hoff did on Germany; brother of Christian August Stieler von Heydekampf and half-brother of Luise Gotter in Gotha (information on her sister, mentioned in letter 239, is unknown). (Portrait: unknown artist.)
Stieler, Caspar (Kaspar) Hermann (5 June 1722–26 May [or April] 1810): Son of Hermann Nikolaus Stieler and Johanna Maria, née Rumpel (1687–1749), mayor of Gotha from 1762 till 1810, member of the ducal tax board and the ducal commission for orphans, the poor, and penal matters; (1) from 1758 husband of Friederike Eleonore, née Juch (1724–66), with whom he was the father of Luise Gotter; (2) from 1767 husband of Magdalena Christine Caroline (Letta) neé von Wangenheim (1719–81), with whom he was the father of Adolph Stieler.
Stieler, Friederike Eleonore, née Juch (1724–66): From 1758 first wife of Caspar Hermann Stieler, mother of Luise Gotter; ran a girls boarding school in Gotha attended by, among others, the painter Louise Seidler.
Stock, Johanna Dorothea (Dora) (1760–1832): Painter. (According to a diary correction by her father, she was more likely born in 1759.) Trained initially by her father in Leipzig, J. M. Stock (1737–7, who had given Goethe lessons in copper and wood engraving while Goethe was a student in Leipzig), she then moved to Dresden with her brother-in-law Christian Gottlieb Körner and her sister Anna Maria Jakobine (Minna) Körner. Engaged for a time to Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, who, however, broke off the engagement to marry Therese Forster (née Heyne). Dora Stock never married, living thereafter with the Körners, accompanying them when they moved to Berlin in 1815 for political reasons. In May 1784, she, Körner, her sister, and Huber sent a letter of support (and portraits of themselves) to Schiller, who was languishing and having professional problems in Mannheim, ultimately inviting him to Leipzig, where he arrived in April 1785. With Körner’s financial support, he lived a financially relatively secure life first in Leipzig, then at the Körner’s estate vineyard near Dresden. His Ode an die Freude was dedicated to the two couples. Dora Stock’s social grace also contributed considerably to the success of Körners’ salon. She was also a talented musician and actress and carried on a correspondence with, among others, Charlotte von Schiller. Her accounts of the “meeting of the Romantics” in the Dresden art gallery in the summer of 1798 is an important source of information on the early days of the Jena Romantics. Painted portraits, generally in pastels and oil, of, among others, Schiller and Mozart as well as Julie von Charpentier, Friedrich von Hardenberg’s (Novalis) fiancée; in 1810 was considered the foremost portrait painter in Dresden. (Portrait: self-portrait 1795.)
Stolberg (Stollberg), Christian Count zu Stolberg-Stolberg (1748–1821): Writer, translator, brother of Friedrich Leopold. After studying law in Halle and Göttingen and joining the Göttinger Hainbund with his brother, and after the “grand tour” (see his brother’s entry), he married in 1777 and settled as a magistrate in Tremsbüttel, where he cultivated contact with Heinrich Christian Boie, Matthius Claudius, Johann Gottfried Herder, and Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock, and published poetry and dramatic works in the tradition of the Hainbund poetic society in Göttingen and translated from the Greek and Latin.
Stolberg (Stollberg), Friedrich Leopold (called Fritz), Count zu Stolberg-Stolberg (1750–1819): Poet, writer, translator, brother of Christian von Stolberg. A Holstein native, Stolberg early came under the influence of Klopstock, a family friend. From 1770 both brothers studied law in Halle, then from 1772 in Göttingen, where they became prominent members of the Göttinger Hainbund and first publishing poems in the Göttinger Musenalmanach in 1774. From April 1775 they began their “grand tour” (actually only to Switzerland), initially in the company of Goethe, though the brothers’ behavior caused him and others considerable embarrassment. Though the brothers co-published a volume of poems in 1779, in 1777 their professional paths diverged. Friedrich entered the service of the Bishop of Lübeck at the Danish court in Copenhagen, thereafter taking administrative positions at the court in Eutin and in Neuenburg near Oldenburg. After marrying in 1782 and taking a brief diplomatic post in St. Petersburg in 1785, he published both independently and again with his brother in 1787, whence ultimately the two were often mentioned together. After the death of his first wife, he remarried and undertook a journey to Italy in 1791, which provided the basis for Reise in Deutschland, der Schweiz, Italien und Sizilien in den Jahren 1791 und 1792 (4 vols., 1794), much lampooned in Schiller and Goethe’s Xenien. But he also became increasingly religious and intolerant, even criticizing Schiller and converting to Catholicism in 1800. Also quite active as a translator (Iliad, 1778; four plays by Aeschylus, 1802), and a fifteen-volume history of Christianity (1806–18).
Stolberg-Wernigerode, Christian Friedrich, Count zu (1746–1824): From 1778 regent in the Duchy of Wernigerode, located at the northeastern flank of the Harz Mountains at the foot of Mount Brocken. Stolberg was an acquaintance of the poets Anna Louisa Karsch and Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim.
Stransky (auf Stranka) und Greiffenfels, Franz Otto von (15 October 1778–29 October 1845): Bohemian physician. Earned doctorates in both philosophy and medicine; at his thesis defense in medicine in September 1801 in Bamberg (the notorious “Bamberg theses”), he committed himself not only to the views of the Schlegels in Athenäum, but also to the positions of Schelling and Andreas Röschlaub and for doing so was castigated in the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung (1802) 101 (Saturday, 3 April 1802) 31–32. Later publications in 1805 attested the influence of the French theosoph Saint-Martin (died 1803). Although Stransky expected a position in Landshut, he ended up going to Vienna instead as personal physician to a grand duke. There he and his wife, Christine, née von Schleich (31 March 1785–1865) (divorced in 1826), who later carried on a correspondence with Friedrich Schlegel (Friedrich Schlegels Briefe an Frau Christine von Stransky, geborene Freiin von Schleich, ed. Max Rottmanner, 2 vols. [Vienna 1907–11]), socialized with the most respected and cultured circles, including with Madame de Staël during the latter’s stay there in December 1807, then also with Wilhelm Schlegel when he delivered his lectures on dramatic art and literature there in 1808; and finally with Ludwig Tieck, his sister Sophie and her later (second) husband Ludwig Johann von Knorring, Novalis’s brother, Karl Freiherr von Hardenberg, and Friedrich Schlegel, who came to Vienna in 1808 after converting to Catholicism. Stransky’s professional aspirations in Vienna, however, came to nothing, and in 1809 he entered Bavarian service in Eichstätt, then serving from 1817 as medical administrator in Augsburg. He divorced his wife, Christine (with whom Friedrich Schlegel seems to have had an intimate relationship) in 1826, moved to Bayreuth, and remarried.
Strauss, David Friedrich (1808–74): Writer. Initially a tutor at the theological seminary in Tübingen, then a Gymnasium professor in Ludwigsburg. Influenced by Hegel, he wrote a “life of Jesus”(Leben Jesu ) interpreting the New Testament accounts as popular myths constructed around a historical core. His subsequent defense (Der alte und der neue Glaube ) interpreted religion as a flight from the phenomena of the universe, the resurrection as “world-historical humbug,” and advocated education, literature, art, and history as a substitute for religion with regard to moral cultivation. Also wrote a series of biographies.
Strobel, Johann Baptiste (1748–1805): Munich bookseller and publisher. Professor at the Straubinger Gymnasium; in 1777 he acquired the Osten bookstore. From 1795 editor of the Churbaierisches Intelligenzblatt. His success helped free Munich publishing and bookselling from its previous dependence on the Augsburg firms.
Ströhlin, Friedrich Jakob (11 February 1743–2 September 1802): A native of Herrenberg, received his education in the Württemberg monastery schools and the Tübingen Stift, till 1781 preacher in Geneva, then pastor in Fougereau, a castle estate between Nantes and Bordeaux, from 1786 professor at the Hohe Karlsschule in Stuttgart, from 1794 professor of Greek , French, and English at the Gymnasium there. Having worked as a family tutor himself in France, Ströhlin arranged a similar position for Friedrich Hölderlin in Bordeaux in 1801.
Strohmeier (Strohmayer), Katharina (dates unknown): Housekeeper and mistress of Anton Joseph Dorsch, who eventually married her, apparently in Mainz, after leaving the priesthood. She is mentioned in the play The Mainz Clubbists.
Stroth, Friedrich Andreas (1750–85): One of the most significant Enlightenment educators in Germany; from 1750 rector of the Gymnasium in Quedlinburg, from 1779 in Gotha; philologist, though enjoyed an extremely broad education and was a prolific scholarly writer, esp. in philology, church history, patristics, and New Testament exegesis.
Studnitz, Ernst August von (8 October 1728–15 January 1785): Father of Caroline’s correspondent in French, Julie von Studnitz in Gotha. Ducal Saxon Geheimrath and Canzler in Gotha. Studied at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig and then in Göttingen, finishing in 1750 and thereafter functioned as a court administrator and associate member of the government in Gotha. From 1766 administrative head of the government in Gotha, from 1776 minister, generally acknowledged as having done much to improve civil government there, e.g., by improving the system of justice and police, the care of orphans and widows, establishing fire insurance, loan institutions to curtail unfair lending, an anatomical institute for surgeons, and the promotion of veterinary medicine. Concerning his character, which was invariably described as exemplary, see supplementary appendix 2.2.
Studnitz, Luisa Juliana (Luise Juliane; Julie) von (25 July 1762–25 October 1793): Acquaintance of Caroline during the latter’s two years in boarding school in Gotha, eldest daughter of Gotha privy councilor Ernst August von Studnitz, a prominent citizen in Gotha (see preceding entry). It seems she never married. It is perhaps worth noting that “Fräulein Julie von Studnitz in Gotha” is listed after the preface as a presubscriber to the German edition of Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), namely, Rettung der Rechte des Weibes mit Bemerkungen über politische und moralische Gegenstände, trans. Christian Gotthilf Salzmann, vol. 1 (Schnepfenthal 1793).
Sturz, Helferich (Helfrich) Peter (1736–79): Writer, essayist. Initially employed in, among other places, Copenhagen, from 1762 as secretary to Count Bernstorff and eventually in the entourage of King Christian VII, from 1772 in Oldenburg. As a prolific essayist, Sturz wrote on capital punishment, Johann Gottfried Herder, and many other topics, publishing many pieces in H. C. Boie’s periodical Das deutsche Museum.
Sturz, Karl Joseph (dates unknown): Member (Rath) of the third deputation of the Würzburg Prince Electoral Territorial Directory, whose president and special commissar was Karl Friedrich von Thürheim; his immediate superior was Johann Nepomuk Sicherer.
Sturz, Madam (unknown dates): Wife of Karl Joseph Sturz, territorial administrator and acquaintance of the Schellings in Würzburg. Erich Schmidt (1913), 2:735, identifies her as the “Madam Sturz” in letter 57 as well.
Succow (Suckow), Wilhelm Karl Friedrich (not: Lorenz Johann Daniel as in Erich Schmidt , 2 735) (1770–1848): Caroline’s physician in Jena. From 1787 studied medicine in Jena, then Wittenberg in 1792, returning to Jena in 1793, earning his philosophical doctorate and becoming a lecturer in medicine. Earned his medical doctorate in 1795, becoming associate professor of medicine in 1801. Together with Justus Loder, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (Succow’s brother-in-law), and Johann Gottlob Bernstein he led the clinic in the medical-surgical institute there. Left Jena in 1805 to become personal physician to Count Hochberg in Silesia. Returned to the university in Jena in 1808, from 1811 codirector of the university clinic, from 1816 full professor of medicine.
Sulzer, Johann Georg (1720–79): Eventual director of the section on philosophy at the Berlin Academy. Primarily known for his writings on aesthetics, which viewed the arts as a pedagogical device, beauty being a prerequisite of art that aids intellectual processes by an appeal to the senses. Major work: Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste und Wissenschaften (1771–74).
Süssmeyer (Süssmayr), Franz Xaver (1766–1803): Composer, musician, chapel master at the court in Vienna, student of Mozart, whose Requiem he is alleged to have completed, also studied under Antonio Salieri. Successful composer of the Viennese singspiel.
Süvern, Johann Wilhelm (1775–1829): Classical philologist, politician, Prussian pedagogical reformer. From 1793 studied theology in Jena, from 1795 classical philology in Halle, from 1796 worked at the philological-pedagogical institute in Berlin. From 1800 director of the Gymnasium in Thorn, from 1804 in Elbing, from 1807 professor of classical philology in Königsberg, where he came to the attention of Queen Luise, wife of King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, the Prussian court and government having fled to Königsberg after the battles of Jena and Auerstedt. From 1808 in Prussian service in Berlin, where he participated in implementing the pedagogical reforms of Wilhelm von Humboldt and J. H. Pestalozzi.
Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688–1772): Swedish natural scientist and polymath, spent considerable time traveling abroad to broaden his knowledge. Seems to have first experienced what for him was the spiritual world in 1743 in London, when his inner eyes were opened to see heaven, hell, and the world of the spirits, enabling him to converse with the deceased.
Swift, Jonathan (1667–1745): British writer, satirist, cleric, Dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin, known primarily for his prose satire and his political and religious essays. Gulliver’s Travels actually appeared anonymously.
Sympher: Siblings of Philipp Michaelis’s wife, Auguste Katharine Sympher; Philipp’s wife and an otherwise unidentified husband of one of her sisters met Caroline in Celle and journeyed on to Harburg with her on 1 April 1801. After the battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801, two high-ranking French official and a merchant stopped at the house of either another or the same brother-in-law on their way to Copenhagen.
Catharina Eleonora Sympher: Born 1772 in Harburg;
Jacob August Sympher: Born 1773 in Harburg–1830 in Hannover;
Friederich Sympher: 1776 in Harburg–1814 in Orthez (southern France);
Carl August Sympher: born 1779 in Harburg;
Caroline Sympher: 1780 in Harburg–1784 in Harburg;
Georgine Maria Sympher: 1782 in Harburg–1783 in Harburg;
Johanna Friderica Sympher: 1783 in Harburg–1784 in Harburg;
Georg Victor Sympher: 1784 in Harburg–1785 in Harburg;
Marie Georgine Sympher: 1785 in Harburg–1786 in Harburg;
Caroline Sympher: 1787 in Harburg–[?] in Verden
Sympher, Maria Francisca Magdalene Antoinette, née Majus (born 1760 in Harburg, died ? in Altona): From 21 April 1789 second wife of Friedrich Georg August Sympher in Harburg, father of Auguste Katharine Michaelis, Philipp Michaelis’s wife; hence Auguste Katharine Michaelis’s stepmother, with whom Caroline stayed in Altona in April 1801. From 1799 (marriage license 21 April 1799) married (second marriage) to the Englishman John Hane in Altona (born 1760, died ? in Altona).