Tacitus, Cornelius (ca. 55–120 CE): One of the last great classic writers of Roman literature and Rome’s greatest historiographer. His Germania describes the origins and customs of the Germans, discusses the characteristics of the individual groups, all of which is cast as a geographical-ethnographic study and cultural portrayal of a still uncorrupted, natural people. In his Historiae he described his own age (most of this work was lost), then in the Annales from the death of Augustus to Nero’s death (this work, too, is incomplete).
Talleyrand, Charles Maurice (Talleyrand-Périgord) (1754–1838): French diplomat. Initially in the church, from 1788 bishop of Autun. Left for a secular career. 1792–94 in London, then to America, by 1796 back in France, associated with Napoleon’s coup in 1799, becoming a trusted associate before falling out with Napoleon over foreign policy. Represented France in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna.
Talma, François-Joseph (1763–1826): French tragic actor with the Comédie Française. Initially a dentist, then turned to acting, owing part of his initial reputation to Madame de Staël, who highly praised him. Was principally responsible for defining the great roles of French tragedies during the early nineteenth century; also introduced or followed up on various reforms in the art of acting itself and in production (realism in scenery and costume). He was part of Napoleon’s intimate circle, performing in Erfurt in that capacity in sixteen tragedies (Congress of Erfurt: 27 September–14 October 1808); one was Voltaire’s Death of Caesar (6 October in Weimar), a piece full of violent attacks on royalty which was prohibited in Paris; Napoleon allegedly enjoyed the embarrassment of the attending sovereigns. (Portrait: lithograph by G. Engelmann.)
Tasso, Torquato (1544–95): Italian poet, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberate (1580), which depicts the struggles between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, and Aminta (1573), a pastoral drama that subsequently exerted considerable influence on opera and cantata. Among Caroline’s acquaintances, it was especially Johann Diederich Gries who spent almost a lifetime studying and laboring to produce worthy translations of Tasso’s works. (Portrait: by Jacopo da Ponte, called Jacopo Bassano.)
Tatter (Datter), Georg Ernst (22 May 1757–16 April 1805): Born of low state in Hannover as the son of a royal garden master, he ultimately enjoyed the favor of King George III of England. From 1776 student, then from 1786 tutor to the English princes (sons of George III) who were studying in Göttingen, namely, Adolphus Frederick (1774–1850; Duke of Cambridge), Augustus Frederick (1773–1843; created Duke of Sussex in 1801), and Ernest Augustus I, from 1837 King of Hanover (1771–1851; from 1799 Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale). From 1787 legation secretary, from 1789 present in Göttingen, earning his doctorate in 1791. Accompanied Prince Augustus to Italy in 1793, during which journey the prince married Lady Augusta Murray. Tatter returned in 1797 and was given a position with Prince Adolphus, which he held until becoming a legation secretary in Petersburg in 1800 (arriving there in November 1800), where he remained until his death. According to Luise Wiedemann, Tatter was the nephew of Georg Christoph Dahme. Tatter courted Caroline 1788/89, also visiting her in Mainz in the autumn of 1792. Apparently a good friend of Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer, in which regard see Elise Campe, Erinnerungen 1:311–12:
Among the many friends with whom Meyer socialized in Göttingen, with some more closely than others, and who wrote him words of ardent friendship and devoted affection during his many travels, Tatter should also be mentioned. Although Tatter’s name was not distinguished by any brilliant worldwide reputation, his charming and respectable personality certainly merits introduction here among Meyer’s other friends through excerpts from his letters; it was presumably through his position with the royal princes that he came into closer contact with Meyer.
As the son of the master gardener in Montbrillant, he genuinely belonged to the class of non-borns and in fact owed his position solely to his immaculate moral reputation, which had secured for him the goodwill and respect of a highly placed man who in his own turn was highly respected by George III. Tatter was able to maintain this man’s trust even though, during the trip to Italy in the company of Prince Augustus, he as little as Count Münster was able to prevent the prince from entering into that particular alliance that estranged him from his royal father forever [his marriage to Lady Augusta Murray in April 1793 in Rome in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act of 1772].
On his return, the king himself gave him a position with his favorite son, the Duke of Cambridge [Prince Adolphus], and Tatter was able to secure the affection of this excellent prince to such a degree that he remained the prince’s proven confidante till his [Tatter’s] death; a sense of independence within this relationship along with the most subtle sense of tact always enabled Tatter to find the proper boundaries in his dealings with nobility, which prevented any false modesty on his part; moreover, his reliable, proven disposition also secured for him the respect of even the most arrogant people. And yet all these excellent characteristics were still unable to protect him from the unpleasant feelings which his unique position perpetually evoked. As long as such long-entrenched prejudices be not everywhere suspended, individuals will be unable to escape their influence regardless of how excellent their personality and character may well be. Tatter’s letters to Meyer all too often lend expression to the most painful feelings deriving from these disparities.
Because Caroline was apparently genuinely and deeply in love with Tatter at one point, additional material may help sketch out the personality of this man to which she was so attracted. See supplementary appendix Georg Ernst Tatter. That said, however, Friedrich Schlegel (Walzel, 32; KFSA 23:38) describes Tatter 1792 as “a man of considerable astuteness who derives his sustenance both in and from himself in a condition of frosty self-conceit.” Tatter’s behavior toward Caroline, to whom he offered no assistance after the Mainz catastrophe (and for which Luise Wiedemann, Erinnerungen, reproaches him), always exhibited an element of cool selfishness and has never been fully illuminated. A letter he wrote to Wilhelm Schlegel in November 1800 exhibits this same tone (letter no. 276a).
Teller, Marie Luise, née Schuriam (1753–27 June 1810): Weimar actress, originally from Regensburg. Joined the Weimar company on 21 January 1799 and remained till her death. After a rather uneven start, e.g., losing a role in Schiller’s Die Piccolomini because she was allegedly “unteachable,” she did nonetheless become a regular in secondary roles. (Erich Schmidt, , 2:735, indexes her as Wilhelmine Teller.)
Teller, Wilhelm Abraham (1734–1804): Leading enlightenment theologian during second half of eighteenth century (esp. Wörterbuch des Neuen Testaments, 1772). After studying theology and philosophy in Leipzig, worked from 1761 as general superintendent and professor of theology in Helmstedt before moving to Berlin in 1767 as a member of the high consistory, one of his publications (Lehrbuch des Christlichen Glaubens ) having provoked trouble with the Lutheran orthodoxy in Helmstedt for virtually surrendering the uniqueness of God’s historical revelation in Christ. While in Berlin, he resisted the religio-political reaction inaugurated by Johann Christoph Wöllner’s religious edict of 1788 under Friedrich Wilhelm II.
Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich von (1737–1807): Prussian officer, studied mathematics but entered the army at the beginning of the Seven Years War, where he saw considerable action. After the war, he pursued mathematical and astronomical studies in Berlin, also publishing introductions to the analysis of finite and infinite quantities (1768, 1769), as well as an introduction to algebra (1773) and a mathematical consideration of piano tuning (1775). Later works include a treatise on the movement of projectiles through the air (1781) and translation (from the Italian) on the physical-mathematical principles of artillery (1788). His history of the Seven Years War is considered his most important work, the first volume of which was a translation from the English (1783), the rest of which he composed himself (1785–1801). He was the first to use the designation “Seven Years War” to refer to the conflict. Later a military teacher in Berlin.
Tennemann, Wilhelm Gottlieb (1761–1819): Historian of philosophy. From 1779 studied philosophy in Erfurt (intrigued esp. by Plato and the question of immortality), from 1781 in Jena (studying esp. Kant), earning his master’s in 1788 and publishing subsequently on the Socratics (1791) and Plato (1792f.). Became a lecturer in Jena, translated David Hume (1793) and John Locke (1795f.), thence becoming more interested in the history of philosophy (Geschichte der Philosophie, 11 vols., 1798–1819). From 1798 associate professor of philosophy in Jena, from 1804 full professor and successor of Dieterich Tiedemann in Marburg, whence Caroline’s remark. (Portrait: frontispiece to Tennemann’s Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 10 [Leipzig 1817].)
Terence (Publius Terentius Afer) (ca. 190–159 BCE): According to Plautus the greatest Roman comedic playwright. Six of his plays have been preserved. He tended to follow the lead of Attic comedies, adapting more than translating them and also introducing more elegant though natural, conversational language and dramatic character. Lessing discusses his excellent dramatic technique, whence he also came to exert an influence during the latter eighteenth century. Friedrich von Einsiedel’s adaptation of Terence’s Adelphi (ca. 160 BCE) was performed three times in Weimar during 1801.
Thanner, Friedrich Ignaz (1770–1856): Priest, philosopher, court chaplain and librarian of the archbishop in Salzburg. From 1805 till 1808 professor of philosophy in Landshut, thereafter in Innsbruck and Salzburg.
Theocritus (ca. 308–240 BCE): Sicilian native, most important Greek bucolic poet, initiator of the pastoral form and setting, evoking the rural tone of the shepherds’ life. Because he wrote in the Doric dialect, he was less popular during the Renaissance, and editions of his pieces only began appearing more frequently during the late 18th century.
Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus (1772–1840): Legal scholar, studied in Göttingen, 1796–1801 private lecturer in Kiel, then for a short time in Jena, from 1805 professor of law in Heidelberg; disagreed with Friedrich Carl von Savigny concerning whether German law should be codified; from 1805–7 and 1821 he was rector of the university in Heidelberg. His interest in music came to expression not only in his book Über Reinheit in der Tonkunst (Tübingen 1824), but also in his weekly gatherings at his Heidelberg home, during which a small choral group sang sixteenth-century pieces.
Thielemann (Thielmann), Johann Adolf von (1765–1824): Saxon officer, served Saxony, Prussia, and France during the Napoleonic wars, contributing, however, to the victory at Waterloo. From 1791 married to Wilhelmine von Charpentier (1772–1842), sister of Julie von Charpentier, Friedrich von Hardenberg’s (Novalis) second fiancée.
Thomann, Joseph Nikolaus (12 April 1764–24 March 1805): Senior physician of the Julius Hospital and professor of general medicine in Würzburg. Studied medicine in Würzburg, receiving his doctorate in 1788, from 1790 magistrate physician in Arnstein, from 1792 second municipal physician and obstetrician in Mergentheim, from 1796 professor of general medicine and second physician in the Julius Hospital in Würzburg, from 1798 senior physician there and professor at the university hospital, from 1803 administrative medical Rath, as which he remained until his death on 24 March 1805. Published widely.
Thorvaldsen, Albert Bertel (1770–1844):Danish/Icelandic sculptor. From 1797 in Rome, remaining in Italy for the next sixteen years, though he ultimately spent almost forty years there. Generally considered a representative of the Neoclassical period in sculpture. After his death, he bequeathed part of his fortune for the building and endowment of a museum in Copenhagen (the Thorvaldsen Museum) and much of his art collection and models for his sculptures (given the technique for producing a sculpture in marble or bronze, after the finished sculpture had been delivered a full-size plaster model was always left standing in the workshop), whence the relief for Auguste’s grave came to be housed there. One of the originals of her bust by Friedrich Tieck also came to be housed there after Schelling sent his copy to Thorvaldsen in Rome in 1811 as a model for a slightly altered version. Thorvaldsen’s altered version is now on display in the museum. (Portrait: frontispiece to Adolf Rosenberg, Thorwaldsen, Künstler-Monographien xvi, ed. H. Knackfuss [Bielefeld, Leipzig 1896].)
Thouret, Nikolaus Friedrich von (1767–1845): Architect, painter. Studied painting at the military and art academy and later Hohe Karlsschule in Stuttgart under Karl Eugen, for whom his father worked as chamberlain. Earned the title of Court Painter in 1788 before continuing his studies in Paris (1789–90), turning then to architecture in 1793 in Rome. Returned to Germany in 1796 and served the court in Stuttgart, also working on the New Castle there. Became acquainted with Goethe in 1797, at whose recommendation he was contracted to renovate the Weimar castle in 1798. Ennobled in 1806. From 1817 professor of architecture at the Royal Art Academy in Stuttgart. (Self-portrait ca. 1807; Württembergisches Landesmuseum.)
Thouvenel, Pierre (1745–1815): French physician, studied in Monpellier, from 1781 in Paris, though a medical scandal made his position precarious until he secured the support of the king. Also investigated dowsers, diviners, animal magnetism, and galvanic and electrical experiments (Mémoire physique et médicinal, montrant des rapports évidente entre les phénomènes de la baguette divinatoir, du magnétisme animale et de l’électricité [Paris 1781]). Exiled in Italy during the French Revolution, returned to Paris to become personal physician to Louis XVIII.
Thucydides (ca 455 B.C.E.–ca. 396 B.C.E.): Greek historian, best known as the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the war between Sparta and Athens till the year 411 BCE. In this work, Thucydides himself recedes as author, concentrating instead on an unadorned account of the war, whence he has also been called the father of modern historiography.
Thümmel, Hans Wilhelm von (1744–1824): Brother of the writer Moritz August Thümmel. Saxon-Gotha-Altenburg privy councilor, minister, and diplomat in Altenburg. Studied in Leipzig but had to become a page in Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg instead, eventually (1771) becoming an assessor in Gotha, later director of the high tax commission, in which capacity he was active in construction products in the principality and also functioned as a diplomat abroad. He was quite close to his brother Moritz August, who in his own turn was a close acquaintance of Georg Joachim Göschen in Leipzig. (Portrait: frontispiece to Hans Wilhelm von Thümmel, Aphorismen aus den Erfahrungen eines Sieben und Siebzigjährigen [Altenburg 1821].)
Thümmel, Moritz August von (1738–1817): Writer. From 1756 studied law in Leipzig, employed at the court at Coburg-Saalfeld from 1761, advancing to the status of Geheimrath and minister. From 1783 lived privately on his estate Sonneburg and in Gotha. Wrote primarily in the style of the ironic and erotic cavalier poetry of the Rococo. 1776 translated Jean-François Marmontel’s libretto to Azor et Zémire (1771). Georg Joachim Göschen published the ten-volume travelogue of his journey to France in 1785–86 as Reise in die mittäglichen Provinzen von Frankreich im Jahr 1785 bis 1786 (Leipzig 1791–1805). (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 329.)
Thürheim, Count Friedrich Karl von (6 November 1763–10 [11?] November 1832): Bavarian administrator and statesman. Attended the Karl Academy in Stuttgart with Schiller before studying law. Initially in Bavarian service, then from 1790 in imperial service in Vienna before returning to Bavaria. Married to Maria Walburga, née von Weichs. 1803–08 president of the two new Franconian regional administrations in Bamberg and Würzburg, 1808–14 general commissar in Nürnberg, Ansbach, and Bayreuth. In 1817 succeeded Maximilian von Montgelas as minister of the interior, 1826–28 minister of the royal house and foreign minister. Intimately involved in the development of the Bavarian state and the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (“Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation”) (1803), especially in Franconia. (Portrait: unknown artist and provenance.)
Thurn und Taxis, Maximilian Joseph von (1769–1831): Bavarian and imperial general major. From 1790 Bavarian cavalry lieutenant, from 1798 in imperial service, participating in the Italian campaign of 1799, severely wounded in the battle of Marengo in June 1800, from 24 June 1800 Austrian general major. From December 1803 captain of the guard of Ferdinand, Grand Duke of Tuscany and current Prince Elector of Salzburg, in which capacity Caroline mentions him in connection with the arrival in Würzburg of the latter during the spring of 1806. (Portrait: Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv Austria, Porträtsammlung: Inventarnummer PORT_00096194_01.)
Thurn-Valsassina, Benedikt Joseph Wilhelm, Imperial Count (1744–1825): Under Karl Friedrich von Dalberg cathedral dean and provost, diplomat, president of the electoral administration, and from 1803 president of the state directory of the Sovereign Principality of Regensburg. Supporter of the arts in Regensburg and a member of the Illuminati.
Tieck, Agnes (1802 [05? 06?]–80): Daughter of Amalie Tieck, technically the stepdaughter of Ludwig Tieck, since her father was probably Wilhelm von Burgsdorff in Ziebingen and was generally acknowledged as such. From 26 September 1842 married to her first cousin Gustav Alberti (1799–1862; his second marriage), a factory owner in Waldenburg in Silesia, who was the son of Johann Gustav Wilhelm Alberti (1757–1837), one of Amalie Tieck’s brothers. Agnes ended up functioning as one of the executors of Ludwig Tieck’s literary estate.
Tieck (Tiek), Amalie (Malchen, Amli), née Alberti (1769–1837 ): Wife of Ludwig Tieck (engaged 1796, married 1798), daughter of Hamburg pastor Julius Gustav Alberti (1723–72), who sided with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in the latter’s dispute with J. M. Goeze concerning the fragments of the freethinker Hermann Samuel Reimarus and was a friend of Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock. She met Tieck, who was still in school, at the house of the composer Johann Friedrich Reichardt in connection with the amateur theater he hosted; Reichardt’s second wife was Amalie’s sister Johanna Dorothea Wilhelmine (1755–1827).
Tieck, Anna Sophie, née Berukin (or Berutschin) († week of 17 April 1802): From Jeserig in Brandenburg; the illegitimate daughter of a blacksmith named Schale but grew up in the family of the village preacher. Mother of Ludwig, Friedrich, and Sophie Tieck. From 1772 married to Johann Ludwig Tieck. Although the two died are generally said to have died within a week of each other around Easter 1802, in her letter to Julie Gotter from Berlin on 24 April 1802, Caroline remarks that the father “died last night.”
Tieck, Dorothea (26 March 1799–1841): Daughter of Ludwig Tieck, to whose (and Wilhelm Schlegel’s) translated edition of Shakespeare she later substantially contributed together with Count Wolf Heinrich von Baudissin, though she also translated other materials as well from both English and Spanish, including Shakespeare’s sonnets. She was pressed into service translating the yet outstanding Shakespearean plays when Ludwig Tieck, who had already received an advance but was unable to continue because of illness, was admonished by the publisher. (Portrait: by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein; excerpt from a painting of Ludwig Tieck sitting for the sculptor David d’Angers in 1834.)
Tieck (Tiek), Friedrich (1776–1851): Sculptor. Brother of Ludwig and Sophie Tieck. 1794–97 studied under Johann Gottfried Schadow in Berlin. From 1798 undertook various journeys to Italy and Paris, often also working in Weimar (contributing to the decoration of the Weimar castle, whose renovation Goethe was overseeing), Munich, and Berlin (interior and exterior theater decoration). 1819 founded an academy for sculpture in Berlin with Friedrich Schinkel and Christian Daniel Rauch. From 1830 director of the section for sculpture at the Berlin Museum. Did the bust of Auguste that Caroline had in her apartments in Würzburg and Munich and now housed in the Thorvaldsen Museum in Copenhagen. (Self-portrait 1805/06.)
Tieck, Johann Ludwig († 23 April 1802). Father of Ludwig, Friedrich, and Sophie Tieck. A master rope-make in Berlin who as an apprentice had journeyed around Germany and Hungary and even to the Turkish border. In Berlin he settled in a large house in the Rossstrasse in Neukölln. Was quite literate and enjoyed reading, including fiction, something unusual for his class. From 1772 married to Anna Sophie, née Berukin (or Berutschin). Although the two died are generally said to have died within a week of each other around Easter 1802, in her letter to Julie Gotter from Berlin on 24 April 1802, Caroline remarks that the father “died last night.”
Tieck, Ludwig (Caroline usually spells it “Tiek“) (1773–1853): Writer, poet, translator, one of the prominent representatives of early Romanticism, from 1798 married to Amalie (Malchen), née Alberti. A native of Berlin, brother of Sophie and Christian Friedrich Tieck. Although he was early on attracted to the theater, he first studied theology in Halle and Göttingen (1792–93), attending the lectures of, among others, Friedrich August Wolf in classical philology. From 1793 studied in Erlangen with his friend W. H. Wackenroder, with whom he visited various locales in connection with their interest in the picturesque Germany of Albrecht Dürer (Nürnberg), older fairy tales, and chapbooks, the result of which Tieck published after Wackenroder’s death as a collection of essays on art and music, Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (1797). Returned to Berlin in 1794, published several early novels, also writing for hire for F. E. Rambach and Friedrich Nicolai, including an ongoing collection of stories, the Straussfeder. Published the novels Geschichte des Herrn William Lovell (3 vols., 1795–96), Franz Sterbalds Wanderungen in 1798, and developed an interest in Volkspoesie and fairy tales, publishing collections of each which he himself composed (Kunstmärchen) and which included plays, one of which was Der gestiefelte Kater (1797). Met Friedrich Schlegel in 1797 in Berlin, moved to Jena in October 1799 with his wife, becoming friends especially with Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis), whose posthumous works he later edited. Published a translation of Don Quixote (1799–1800), returned to Berlin and moved then to Ziebingen, east of Frankurt an der Oder, on the estate of his friend Wilhelm von Burgsdorff, where he stayed off and on till 1819. From 1805–06 in Italy with his sister, Sophie. Lived variously in Hamburg, Dresden, and other places thereafter and developed a reputation for his readings of plays and poetry, about which Caroline herself speaks. Particularly noteworthy for his adaptations of earlier material, fairy tales, legends, and dramatic topics. From 1841 in Berlin. He and his eldest daughter, Dorothea (1799–1841, who worked anonymously), contributed to Wilhelm Schlegel’s translation of Shakespeare. (Portrait: Urania: Taschenbuch auf das Jahr 1822; Inhaltsverzeichnis deutscher Almanache, Theodor Springmann Stiftung.)
Tiedge, Christoph August (1752–1841): Writer. Studied in Halle. Worked as a translator and scribe in Magdeburg before becoming a private tutor in 1781, an occupation he carried on for several years before acquiring the patronage of Elisa Charlotte Konstantia von der Recke, with whom he traveled to Italy in 1804. 1799–1802 in Berlin, from 1819 in Dresden with von der Recke. Wrote poems in the fashion of Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim as well as popular philosophical works (Urania über Gott, Unsterblichkeit und Freiheit , which Pauline Gotter will mention in a letter to Caroline in 1808 [letter 434] and Caroline will mention in a letter to Pauline in 1809 [letter 440]), and biographical material. (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 336.)
Tilly, Johann Karl (Jean) (1753–19 January 1795 [2 February 1795?], uncertain; some reports have him disappearing from Hamburg in 1798 after being active there as an actor): A shadowy but frequently mentioned actor, theater director, and playwright during the latter quarter of the 18th century. A native of Vienna, from 1781 principal of a theater company, including a complete ballet company, that performed primarily in towns along the coast of the Baltic Sea, e.g., Stralsund in 1781 (November, December); 1782 (January–March), 1783 (March–April), 1784 (January–July), 1785 (February– June); 1786 (March). In Stralsund, his repertoire included plays by Friedrich Ludwig Schröder, Johann Adam Hiller, Shakespeare (Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet), Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter (Medea), Voltaire, Goldoni, Schiller (Kabale und Liebe, with an altered, i.e., happy ending), Holberg, Friedrich Ludwig Benda (The Barber of Seville), and August Wilhelm Iffland. During this period, Tilly also performed in Lübeck, Eutin, Wismar, Rostock, and Greifswald. Tilly ended an engagement in Lübeck on 19 January 1795 after performing Kotzebue’s Graf Benjowski and Die Verschwörung von Kamtschatka, traveling thence to Braunschweig, where, however, he died in early 1795, i.e., two months before Caroline’s arrival in April 1795. After his death, his widow, who seems to have been Caroline Louise, née Geyer (1760–99) and who was recalled to Germany from her company’s performances in Petersburg in 1795 when her husband died, continued to direct the company with financial assistance from patrons of the arts. This information, however, is quite uncertain.
Tischbein, Caroline (5 November 1783–29 April 1842 [or 1843]): Daughter ofJohann Friedrich August and Sophie Tischbein, artist and writer. From 28 August 1806 wife of the historian and (royal) librarian (from 1805 in Heidelberg, from 1817 in Berlin) Friedrich Wilken (1777–1840), who from 1795 had studied in Göttingen, in part with the financial assistance of Christian Gottlob Heyne and Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and as a student of history under August Ludwig Schlözer and Ludwig Timotheus Spittler, receiving his doctorate in Jena in 1803; he became engaged to Caroline Tischbein while he was continuing his studies in Leipzig. Her parents spent considerable time with the couple in Heidelberg while Caroline’s father was in St. Petersburg (1806–8; he eventually died in their house there during a visit in 1812). Caroline was the model for the medallion portrait of Queen Luise by the painter Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Schmidt. Her memoirs are an important source of information about the family and about their time in Jena. (Portrait: by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein, reproduced in Adolf Stoll, Der Maler Joh. Friedrich August Tischbein und seine Familie [Stuttgart 1923], plate 17.)
Tischbein, Elisabeth (Betty) (17 November 1787–1867): Daughter of Johann Friedrich August and Sophie Tischbein, from 2 November 1807 wife of Wilhelm Kunze from Leipzig. Her sister, Caroline Tischbein, maintained that Betty sang soprano “like a nightingale” even though she was otherwise physically rather fragile and had a very quiet personality. When her father painted during the morning hours, she and Caroline would practice their singing together, also singing for company during the evening. Caroline remarks how entertaining their music-making was during their stay in Jena during the late summer and early autumn 1799. When Betty’s father died in 1812, she and her husband took in her mother, Sophie, to live with them. (Portrait: by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein, reproduced in Adolf Stoll, Der Maler Joh. Friedrich August Tischbein und seine Familie [Stuttgart 1923], plate 18.)
Tischbein, Johann Friedrich August (1750–1812): Painter, known as the “Leipzig Tischbein,” has been called “the best portraitist of his century” (Otto Fiebiger et al.). Cousin of Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Born in Maastricht, Holland. From 1768 worked in Kassel in his uncle’s studio, the painter Johann Heinrich Tischbein (“the Elder,” “Kassel Tischbein” [1722–89]). Married Sophie Müller in 1783. After various journeys (including Paris, Rome, Naples, Holland, in the latter of which he met Wilhelm Schlegel and did his portrait), during which he became increasingly engaged as a portraitist of the middle class (he also did portraits of both Caroline and Auguste), in 1795 he became employed by Prince Leopold III Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau, though he soon left for Berlin. 1799–1800 he worked in Dresden, and in 1800 came to head the Art Academy in Leipzig, succeeding Adam Friedrich Öser. 1806–9 in St. Petersburg, where he also produced portraits of the Russian nobility. Father of the artist Caroline Tischbein. (Portrait: self-portrait, in Adolf Stoll, Der maler Joh. Friedrich August Tischbein und seine Familie [Stuttgart 1923], initial [unnumbered] plate.)
Tischbein, Johann Heinrich (1722–1789): Painter, portraitist, co-founder of the art academy and court painter in Kassel, known esp. as a portraitist of women. Studied in Kassel, Paris, Venice, and Rome. From 1753 court painter of Landgrave Wilhelm VIII of Hesse-Kassel.
Tischbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm (1751–1829): Painter, cousin of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. Known as the “Goethe Tischbein” or “Neapolitan Tischbein.” Trained in Hamburg with his uncle, thereafter working in Amsterdam, Bremen, Kassel, Hannover, and Berlin. 1779–81 and from 1783 in Rome, 1786/87 traveled with Goethe to Naples, where in 1789 he became director of the art academy. Returned to Germany in 1799, from 1801 in Hamburg, from 1808 court painter for the Duke of Oldenburg in Eutin. His friendship with Goethe and his famous portrait (Goethe in der römischen Campagna, 1787), which became emblematic of German longing for the Italy and Greece, prompted his designation as the “Goethe Tischbein.” Otherwise a painter in the classicist style of historical material, idylls, animal scenes, and still life.
Tischbein, Sophie, née Müller (16 December 1760–1840): From 5 January 1783 wife of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. Allegedly the “Amsterdam Sophie” (“S.”) love-interest mentioned in Friedrich Schlegel’s early letters to his brother Wilhelm, the latter of whom was living in Amsterdam at the time, as were the Tischbeins. Concerning her identity as this “S.,” see the supplementary appendix Sophie Tischbein and Wilhelm Schlegel: The Amsterdam Sophie. (Portrait: 1787 by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein; Germanisches Nationalmuseum Inv. Gm1365.)
Törring, Joseph August von (1753–1826): Statesman, writer. From 1773 in Bavarian civil service, from 1817 at the rank of minister of state. Best known in the literary world for his plays in the style of the fashionable dramas of knights and courts (taking Goethe’s Götz von Berlichingen as a model and drawing on material from idealized medieval knighthood with patriotic undertones), his most successful being Agnes Bernauerin (1780), which premiered in Mannheim in 1781 and became a stage favorite throughout Germany.
Trapp, Ernst Christian (1745–1818): Theologian, pedagogue. From 1765 studied theology in Göttingen, also attending the seminars especially of Christian Gottlob Heyne. Held various administrative posts in schools in Bad Segeberg, Itzehoe, and Altona before moving to the Philanthropinum in Dessau. Contributed reviews to Friedrich Nicolai’s Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek during this period. From 1779 first professor of philosophy and pedagogy in Germany in Halle and head of a newly established pedagogical institute for training teachers, the first of its kind at a German university. Lack of student interest prompted his departure. From 1783 employed at other pedagogical institutions, including from 1789 in the Duchy of Braunschweig, where together with Johann Stuve and Joachim Heinrich Campe he was to reform the territory’s school system; the project ran aground because of church and estate resistance. He retired in 1790 and moved to Salzdahlum near Wolfenbüttel, where he established a school for girls. One of the most significant representatives of philanthropism and rigorous Enlightenment thinking. (Portrait: lithograph by Friedrich August Otto Belle; Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Inventar-Nr. A 28265.)
Trebra, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich von (1740–1819): Mining administrator. After studying in Jena, was one of the first students to attend the newly established (1765) mining academy in Freiberg. Quickly established himself as a talented mining administrator, advancing to the rank of deputy senior mining administrator in 1773 and commencing his prolific scientific publishing in the field, for which he also became quite respected. From 1780 in Hannoverian service, first in Zellerfeld, then from 1790 as senior official in Clausthal, where he oversaw various mining operations in the Harz Mountains. From 1801 in Freiberg as head of Saxon mining operations, a position he held until his death. (Portrait: by Anton Graff.)
Troxler, Ignaz Paul Vitalis (1780–1866): Born in Canton Lucerne in Switzerland, from 1800 studied medicine in Jena and Göttingen, from 1804 in Vienna after having attained his Dr. med. His book publications between 1803 and 1805 all drew from Schelling’s philosophy of nature (e.g., defining “life” as “individual productivity in which producer and product entwine amid the form of self-determination and determinability”); also published essays on optics. From 1806 practiced in Lucerne and continued to publish, though his publications prompted objections from officials in Lucerne. Returned to Vienna, then traveled to the Netherlands, France, and Italy, returning to Lucerne in 1808, where once again he had problems with the authorities (e.g., for “demagogic agitation”). After further travels became professor of philosophy and history in Lucerne in 1820, but was deposed by the Jesuits. Established an educational institution in Aarau in 1823, also working at the polytechnical institute there and later at the university in Basel. From 1831 lived on his estate near Aarau, from 1834 professor of philosophy at the university in Bern. (Portrait: ca. 1830 by Friedrich Buser, engraved by J. Siebert; edited ca. 1850 as lithograph by Bernhard Eglin in Lucerne and Heinrich Füssli & Cie in Zürich; Zentral- und Hochschulbibliothek Luzern, Sondersammlung.)
Tychsen, Cecilie (1794–1812) and Adelheid: Daughters of Thomas Christian Tychsen in Göttingen, both of whom were admired and celebrated in verse by the poet Ernst Schulze, though Cecile (Cäcilie in the poems), who died of tuberculosis, as did Schulze himself, seems to have been the stronger inspiration, Adelheid (Adelheit in the poems) a surrogate. Adelheid married a son of Friedrich Ludwig von Berlepsch.
Tychsen, Thomas Christian (1758–1834): Native of Schleswig-Holstein, theologian, scholar of ancient Near Eastern languages. Studied theology and philosophy in Kiel and (from 1779) also philology in Göttingen, 1783–84 travelled to France, Spain, Lombardy, Vienna, and parts of Germany, earning his masters at the university in Fulda. From 1784 professor (extraordinarius) of theology and biblical exegesis in Göttingen, from 1788 full professor, concentrating on exegesis and languages. From 1806 with the title Hofrath, from 1815 Knight of Danebrog, also doctorate in theology in 1817. Wrote a grammar of the Arabic language that for many years served as a standard textbook. After Johann David Michaelis’s death in 1791, Tychsen and August Ludwig Schlözer organized his literary estate. According to Luise Michaelis, her father apparently would not have been opposed to Tychsen marrying one of this daughters. As it was, he married Wilhelmine Elberfeld from Kiel. Tychsen himself was the father of Cäcilie and Adelheid (Adelheit), with both of whom the poet and Göttingen student Ernst Conrad Friedrich Schulze had a relationship. (Portrait: unknown artist.)
Tychsen, Wilhelmine Johanna, née Elberfeld: Daughter of Kiel merchant Johann Heinrich Elberfeld, from 15 April 1792 wife of Thomas Christian Tychsen in Göttingen, mother of Cecilie and Adelheid Tychsen, both of whom the poet Ernst Schulze celebrated in verse.