Index of Persons E




Ebel, Johann Gottfried (1764–1830): Natural scientist, writer. Studied the natural sciences in Frankfurt/Oder, receiving his doctorate in 1789, after which he undertook journeys to Vienna and Switzerland, publishing a description of his experiences in Anleitung, auf die nützlichste und genussvollste Art in der Schweiz zu reisen (1793). From 1794 a physician in Frankfurt/Main, coming under suspicion of entertaining revolutionary ideas because of some translations he published. Had to leave the city in 1796, moving then to Paris, where he lived until 1801, continuing medical research and engaging in Swiss politics and reform, for which he received Helvetic citizenship in 1801. After returning briefly to Frankfurt he settled in Zürich in 1810 and pursued geological research. Was in contact with various scholars and politicians of the age, including Wilhelm von Humboldt and Friedrich Karl von Savigny.

Ebeling, Christoph Daniel (1741–1817): Librarian. Studied theology and philology in Göttingen, worked as private tutor in Leipzig, then at the Hamburg Trade Academy. From 1784 professor of history and Greek at the Hamburg Academic Gymnasium and from 1799 also librarian of the Hamburg city library. Published Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock’s works, literary criticism, and music reviews for Hamburg newspapers; also published translations. Worked on a larger piece on the geography and history of America, also co-edited the journal Amerikanisches Magazin (1795–97).

Eberhard, Johann August (1739–1809): Professor in Halle, lexicographer and writer on aesthetics; works include Theorie der schönen Künste und Wissenschaften &c (1783; 3rd ed. 1790).

Johann_Arnold_Ebert Ebert, Johann Arnold (1723–19 March 1795): Translator, writer. Studied theology in Leipzig from 1743, later the humanities in the larger sense, from 1744 contributed to the Neue Beyträge zum Vergnügen des Verstandes und Witzes and was friends with Johann Andreas Cramer, Johann Adolf Schlegel, and Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock. Translator from the English, from 1748 tutor in Braunschweig, also working as a language teacher at the Collegium Carolinum there, where he became professor of English in 1753 and of Greek in 1770. Translated Edward Young’s Night Thoughts into German (Klagen, oder Nachtgedanken über Leben, Tod, und Unsterblichkeit, 5 vols., 1768–74). (Portrait: Frontispiece of Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften [1769] 9, no. 1.)

Ebert, Louise Antoinette Henriette, née Gräfe (1750–1826): Daughter of a Braunschweig finance minister, from 18 May 1773 wife of Johann Arnold Ebert in Braunschweig (he being 50 years old at the time, she 23).

Eck, Johann Friedrich (1766–1809): Considered one of the best violinists in Germany at the time. Johann Friedrich Reichardt of Berlin remarks that only Johann Peter Salomon played better. From 1778 performed in Munich, where he took additional instruction in. From 1780 court musician in Munich, from 1788 concert master and later also director of the opera. From 1780 an acquaintance of Mozart, with whom he performed on a concert tour in Vienna in 1786. Dismissed from Bavarian service in 1800 for allegedly abducting his future wife, living thereafter in Paris and Nancy.

Eckardt (dates unknown): A tanner in Jena who owned the house at (the later address) Lutherplatz 3, Caroline’s final residence in Jena, which was torn down in 1900 when the street was widened. Eckardt’s tannery seems to have been on the ground floor; his son, W[ilhelm?] Eckardt, learned the trade as well and took over his father’s business later. Peer Kösling determined his identity as the owner of the house in Die Frühromantiker in Jena, 32–34.

Eckardt, Christoph Friedrich Sebastian von (1765–9 April 1801): Court attorney, eldest son (first marriage) of law professor Johann Ludwig von Eckardt in Jena, and half-brother of Rosine Eleonore, widowed Döderlein, who was married to Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer, and Henriette Vermehren, widowed Eber. Committed suicide by stabbing on 9 April 1801, buried quietly at 1 a.m. on 12 April 1801.

Eckardt (Eckard), Johann Ludwig von (1732–1800): Legal scholar, privy councilor, estate owner in Wenigenjena. Studied in Jena 1752–55, becoming a lawyer in 1756, attaining his doctorate in Jena in 1759. From 1778 administrative legal official in Weimar, from 1783 in Jena as the first professor of law, also active in other official legal positions. Ennobled in 1792. Father of Rosine Eleonore, widowed Döderlein, who married Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer in 1797.

Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792–1854): Goethe’s unpaid companion and secretary during the final years of his life. Known chiefly for his 1837 and (third volume) 1848 publication of carefully transcribed conversations with Goethe, Gespräche mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens.

Edward, Prince, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria, began his military training in Germany in 1785.

Egeria: A goddess, possibly of water, worshiped in association with Diana in Rome. Women with child sacrificed to her that they might have an easy birthing process.

Egloffstein, Henriette, Countess von (6 July 1773–15 October 1864): Lived in Weimar 1795–1804. Married a relative in 1788, spent several years in Italy, after which she lived in Erlangen but then separated from and ultimately gave in to her husband’s demand for a divorce. From the winter of 1801 was a central member of a circle in Weimar known as the cour d’amour that included Caroline von Wolzogen and the latter’s husband, Amalie von Imhof, Heinrich Meyer, and Friedrich Hildebrandt von Einsiedel. Her second marriage took her away from Weimar.

Ehrmann, Marianne, née Brentano (1755–1795): German-Swiss actress (under the name Sternheim), writer, and journalist in the Enlightenment tradition. After a financially difficult life, in 1790 she and her husband, Theophil Friedrich Ehrmann, started a woman’s periodical in Stuttgart, Amaliens Erholungsstunden (the anthology of her writing Caroline reviews takes its title from this periodical), the publication of which was taken over by Friedrich Cotta until conflicts prompted the couple to stop publication entirely. Cotta used the subscription list to begin the periodical Flora, while Marianne Ehrmann began publishing Die Einsiedlerin aus den Alpen. She was only 39 when she died.

Eichendorff, Joseph (1788–1857): Author of lyric poetry and romantic tales and plays; generally associated with the generation after the Jena Romantics.

Johann_Gottfried_EichhornEichhorn, Johann Gottfried (1752–1827): Theologian, scholar of the ancient Near East. Studied in Göttingen 1770–74, becoming professor of ancient Near Eastern languages in Jena in 1775 and in 1788 of philosophy in Göttingen. Early proponent of what became known as the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship during the Enlightenment, also incorporating the understanding of myth of his colleague Christian Gottlob Heyne. (Portrait: Zweihundert deutsche Männer in Bildnissen und Lebensbeschreibungen, ed. Ludwig Bechstein [Leipzig 1854], unpaginated [alphabetical] entry on Johann Gottfried Eichhorn.)

Heinrich_Karl_Abraham_EichstaedtEichstädt, Heinrich Karl Abraham (8 August 1771–4 March 1848): Classical philologist. Attended the university in Leipzig at fifteen to study theology and philology, receiving his doctorate two years later, and his Habilitation in 1793. From 1795 special professor in Leizpig, from 1797 full professor in Jena. From 1800 head of the Latin Society and from 1803 professor of eloquence and poesy as well as librarian, then director of the Philological Seminar in Weimar. From 1804 editor of the Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur Zeitung. (Portrait: by unknown artist; Universitätsarchiv Jena.)

Christine_EigensatzEigensatz, Christine Dorothea (1781–10 June 1850 in Graz): A native of Kassel, debuted in 1794 as part of the Berlin theater company in the role of Bärbchen in the Marriage of Figaro. Later married name Pedrillo. A soubrette in both operas and plays, described as a “highly engaging personality” with a beautiful voice and clear understanding of the characters she portrayed. From 1804 in Vienna, where she also adopted eight-year-old Luise Rogée (1800–25), raising her and bringing her back to Berlin in 1811, where she, too, became an actress (debuted in 1816). Other sources say the girl was actually her daughter by the Austrian count Herberstein, on whose Silesian estate Eigensatz lived for many years. (Portrait: Austrian National Library, Porträtsammlung, Inventarnummer PORT_00068613_01,Bildnachweis ÖNB.)

Friedrich_Hildebrandt_EinsiedelEinsiedel, Friedrich Hildebrand von (1750–1828): Writer, translator. From 1761 a page at the court of Duchess Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, from 1768 law student in Jena. From 1776 chamberlain at the Weimar court, though he also fulfilled various other duties, including activities as an actor, musician, poet, and composer. A popular figure at court known as l’ami, also a friend of Goethe and Herder. Publications include translations and a treatise on acting, Grundlinien zu einer Theorie der Schauspielkunst (1797); also translated or adapted many plays for performance in Weimar, including Plautus, Terence, Molière, and Calderón. (Portrait: Johann Ernst Heinsius.)

Conrad_Dietrich_EckhofEkhof, Hans Conrad Dietrich (1720–78): Actor, director. In 1739 Ekhof joined the theater company of Johann Friedrich Schönemann, increasingly influencing the performance and directing over the years. After interim stops, the company performed in Berlin in 1742/43, thereafter in Breslau, Hamburg, and Leipzig, and in 1746 Ekhof married the actress Georgine Spiegelberg. Ekhof’s performance in P. Marivaux’s comedy Der Bauer mit der Erbschaft set a precedent for a more natural and simplified acting style, and in 1753 the company founded an academy for enhancing both the art and standing of actors, promoting an extremely realistic acting, rehearsal, and production style based on the collective performance of the ensemble rather than on any one performer. The academy was short-lived, however, and before long the company was again on the move, though these new ideas did continue to exert an influence on performance. After the company disbanded, Ekhof and his wife settled in Dresden, then returned and reformed the Schönemann company in Schwerin, leaving again in 1764 and joined the company of Konrad Ackermann, initially performing in Hamburg, where he met Lessing, whose play Minna von Barnhelm was a great performance success in 1767. The collapse of the Hamburg national theater project, however, prompted the company to move yet again. Duchess Anna Amalia finally summoned the company to Weimar and provided secure conditions for its stability, with sixty new plays commissioned, though the burning of the theater three years later again orphaned the company. Duke Ernst II of Gotha then engaged them to Gotha, and in 1775 the court funded the establishment of a regular theater with Ekhof as artistic and Heinrich August Ottokar as administrative director; the theater was a considerable success, with the reintroduction of instruction for young actors and attention to production detail and even to the establishment of actors’ pensions. (Portrait: 1774 by Anton Graff.)

Eltz, Peter von: From Koblenz, from 1781 till 1783 a law student in Göttingen and likely also a resident in the Michaelis house.

Emmerich, Andreas (1737–17 [19?] July 1809): Born near Hanau in Hesse as son of a forestry official, he initially worked as a hunter. He went to England in 1756 and served as a rifleman under the Duke of Cumberland, with whom he returned to Germany in 1757. He then volunteered for the new rifle corps of Count von Schulenburg, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant. After the Seven Years War, Friedrich the Great appointed him forestry master and war and demesne councilor. Returned to England as a Deputy Surveyor General of the Royal Forests. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, he served in America as a corps commander, returning afterward to Germany. He was never able to receive back pay for his English service, however, so fell into financial distress. Lived in Cologne and elsewhere, finally settling in Marburg, where he made the acquaintance of Wilhelm von Dörnberg, in connection with whom Emmerich was to lead the insurrection in Upper Hesse. He quickly put himself at the disposal of Johann Heinrich Sternberg, the organizer of the insurrection in Marburg itself. Because Emmerich’s reputation as a soldier was still strong, he was able to win over former soldiers to the cause. When Sternberg fell ill with typhus, Emmerich took over leadership and made ill-timed decisions concerning the insurrection, which failed miserably. He was quickly captured and executed in Kassel.

Endres, Johann Nepomuk (1731–91): From 1760 professor of canon law in Würzburg and an ecclesiastical official. One of the first scholars of canon law to engage in a more critical, independent treatment of his material, his writings also exhibiting a patriotic disposition to rescue German independence from the Roman Curia.

Johann_Jakob_EngelEngel, Johann Jakob (1741–1802): Critic, playwright, novelist, writer. After studying at various universities, he came into contact with the actor Conrad Ekhof by way of the itinerant theater company of Abel Seyler. After a period as a playwright, reviewer, and essayist, he became professor of moral philosophy at a secondary school in Berlin in 1776. Participated in various learned circles in Berlin, including the Wednesday Society, also working as tutor to the Humboldt brothers and to the later king Friedrich Wilhelm III. From 1787 to 1794 he directed the Berlin National Theater along with Karl Wilhelm Ramler. Also published popular philosophical writings as one of the leading representatives of the Berlin Enlightenment. Schleiermacher reviewed the initial volumes of his Der Philosoph für die Welt, 4 vols. (Leipzig, Berlin, 1775–1803) in Athenaeum (1800) 243–52. (Portrait: by Anton Graff, from Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Berlin [ed.], 450 Jahre Jagdschloß Grunewald, vol. 2 [Berlin 1992], 75.)

Engelhard, Johann Philipp (1753–1818): A native of Kassel, received instruction from the court painter Johann Heinrich Tischbein, afterward studying law in Marburg, then Göttingen. From 1775 legal administrator in Kassel with various departments, including finance, ultimately becoming director of one of the financial departments. From 1808 appeals judge. Became engaged to Philippine Gatterer on 24 September 1780, whom he had met in Tischbein’s house in Kassel in 1779. Married her on 23 November 1780; the couple had ten children.

EpicurusEpicurus (341–270 BCE): Philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school with its extreme focus on the here and now and on the human happiness accessible therein. Precepts included freedom from pain, advocacy of enjoyment, but also the control of natural urges through understanding so as to eliminate their control over a person and their tendency to promote unhappiness; the goal was instead a proper balance. (Portrait: Raphael, The School of Athens, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City; Caroline refers to a copper engraving of this piece.)

Erasmus, Desiderius, of Rotterdam (real name: Gerhard Gerhards) (ca. 1466–1536): Humanist, called the “Voltaire of the sixteenth century” by Wilhelm Dilthey. Defended religious tolerance, arguably the founder of theological rationalism. Objected to Luther’s overgeneralizations of his (Erasmus’s) statements.

Ernest Augustus I (1771–1851): Son of George III of England; from 1837 king of Hannover, from 1799 Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale. Student in Göttingen from 10 July 1786 till January 1791.

Auguste_ErnstErnst, Auguste (Udli, Utteline, Gustchen) (17 July 1796–1857): Only child of Charlotte Ernst and thus the niece of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, model for the character of “little Wilhelmine” in Friedrich’s novel Lucinde (1799). From 21 January 1816 unhappily married to a Russian military officer (Heinrich Ludwig von Buttlar). Became known later especially as a specialist in miniature portraiture, also leaving behind a portrait of Friedrich Schlegel, at whose bedside she stood watch the night of his death in 1829. (Uncertain portrait; self-portrait?)

Ernst, Erdmuthe Charlotte Friederike (Lotte, Lottchen), née Schlegel (1759–1826): Sister of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, wife of Ludwig Emmanuel Ernst, the latter an administrative official at the Saxon court in Dresden. Mother of Auguste Ernst. “Among the many bourgeois families that offered a welcome refuge for conviviality and respectable mirth in Dresden, the Ernst house stood at the very top of the list” (Friedrich Laun, Memoiren, 3 vols. [Bunzlau 1837] 2:3–4). Concerning the personality of Charlotte Ernst, see the supplementary appendix Charlotte Ernst, née Schlegel.

Ernst, Ludwig Emanuel (ca. 1756–1826): Economic secretary and administrator for the court in Dresden. Husband of Charlotte Ernst, née Schlegel.

Ernst, Sigmund (dates unknown): Pastor in Hildesheim-Moringen, from 1795 married to Henriette, née Schlegel, hence he was the brother-in-law of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel; from 1801 married to a certain Mademoiselle Hansen.

Ernst II Ludwig von Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg (30 January 1745–20 April 1804): From 1772 territorial prince of the Thuringian duchy of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg. In 1769 he married Princess Charlotte von Saxony-Meiningen (1751–1827), sister of Duke Karl August Friedrich Wilhelm von Meiningen. Received a broad education with his brother, including an educational tour in 1768–69 of the Netherlands, England, and France. Ernst is generally viewed as an extremely liberal and enlightened ruler (also a member of the Freemasons), giving considerable support to the educational system, economy, theater, art collections, libraries, and natural sciences of his territory and especially Gotha, establishing a European center for astronomy there with a new observatory and an early example of the English-garden style at his residence, Friedenstein Castle. These activities made Gotha into a culturally rich and diverse town and a not unattractive place for the three Michaelis daughters to receive part of their education. His wife was:

Charlotte von Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg (11 September 1751–1827:) Sister of Karl August Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Saxony-Meiningen, and from 1769 Duchess of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg as wife of Ernst II Ludwig von Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg (see above).

Charlotte von Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg and Duke Ernst II (see above) had four sons, only two of whom reached adulthood:

(1)Emil_Leopold_August Emil Leopold August, Duke of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg (1772–1822): Second son of Duke Ernst II of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg, from 1804 penultimate territorial prince of the Thuringian duchy of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg. Became crown prince after the death of his elder brother Ernst (1770–79). Admirer of Napoleon, which proved to be an advantage during the Napoleonic Wars; also a patron of the musician Carl Maria von Weber. Inclination toward transvestism, shocking behavior in court, and homosexual elements in his literary works, one of which Caroline mentions, Kyllenion: Ein Jahr in Arkadien (1805) (see esp. supplementary appendix 395.1). After the Congress of Vienna he became (understandably) a persona non grata, and the circumstances of his death remain unresolved. (Portrait by Ludwig Doell.)

(2) Friedrich IV of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg (1774–1825): Third son of Duke Ernst II of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg and from from 1822 final duke of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg. Entered the military early, receiving a wound in 1793 whose effects lingered for a lifetime and ultimately caused his death. In 1814 converted to Catholicism, and after taking the throne in 1822 remained largely outside his own territory for health reasons; because he never received an appanage, he never married, and the line died out with him.

Ernesti, Johann August (1707–81): Classical philologist in Leipzig, rector of the Thomas School in Leipzig, also professor of eloquence, later of theology, edited the works of many classical authors.

Ersch, Johann Samuel (1766–1828): Bibliographer, professor of geography, and head librarian in Halle. From 1786 in Jena, from 1795 in Hamburg as editor of the Neue Hamburger Zeitung, returned to Jena at Easter 1800 to work with the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, thereafter becoming university librarian and from 1802 professor of geography and statistics. He followed the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung to Halle in 1803.

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von (1730–95): From 1779 Prince Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg (his brother, Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal, was the penultimate Archbishop of Mainz). A student of the Enlightenment, Erthal promoted the education of clerics, established the first modern hospital in Bamberg, the first public social insurance, and established a chair of veterinary medicine at the university in Bamberg.

Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph von (1719–1802): Final Prince Elector and Archbishop of Mainz. His younger brother Franz Ludwig von Erthal was Prince Elector of Würzburg and Bamberg. After the death of Emperor Leopold II in 1792, Erthal crowned his successor, France II, the final emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in Frankfurt, and afterward the final imperial diet took place in the Mainz secondary residence “Favorite” along the Rhine, just after the empire had declared war on revolutionary France, an alliance Erthal joined despite warnings not to do so. Before the French took Mainz on 22 October 1792, Erthal and his court fled Mainz during the Mainz Republic (till July 1793). At the Peace of Campo Formio, Austria ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France, including Mainz, by which time, however, Erthal was already residing in his second residence in Aschaffenburg. Erthal resigned his offices in July 1802 to his successor Archbishop Karl Theodor von Dalberg and died later that same month.

Erxleben, Dorothea Christiane, née Leporin (1715–62): First German woman to earn a doctorate in medicine. Received instruction in the natural sciences and even medicine from her father, himself a physician, though initially she was not permitted to study at a university until Frederick the Great, having been petitioned by her father, granted her permission to study in Halle in 1741. She had in the meantime married and did not take advantage of this privilege. Although she practiced medicine without a university education, social pressure and the death of a patient prompted her to return to study when she was thirty-nine, receiving her doctorate in 1755. Mother of Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben and thus grandmother of Karl Schlegel’s wife Julie, née Erxleben.

Erxleben, Johann Christian Polycarp (1744–77): Son of Dorothea Christiane Erxleben. From 1770 married to Sophie Juliane, née Stromeyer, from 1775 professor of physics in Göttingen. Publications include works on veterinary care. His daughter Julie married Karl Schlegel.

Erxleben, Sophie Juliane, née Stromeyer (1751–1815): From 1770 wife of Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben in Göttingen; mother of Karl Schlegel’s wife, Julie.

Eschen, Friedrich August (1776–1800): From Easter 1796 student in Jena, member of the student Society of Free Men (with Johann Diederich Gries), was planning to become engaged to Luise Reichardt, took a position in Switzerland as a private house tutor, perished on 7 August 1800 near Geneva (Chamounix Valley, Büet) in an accident involving the collapse of a snow bridge, falling into an ice crevasse. Known for his translations of Horace’s lyric poetry, Horazens Lyrische Gedichte übersetzt und erläutert, 2 vols. (Zürich 1800). Had also been involved in negotiations with Friedrich Unger in Berlin to translate Don Quixote. Eschen and Friedrich Schlegel were housemates during Friedrich’s earlier time in Jena. Concerning his death, see the supplementary appendix Friedrich August Eschen.

Johann_Joachim_EschenburgEschenburg, Johann Joachim (1743–1820): Literary historian, translator, writer. A native of Hamburg, studied theology in Leipzig and Göttingen. From 1767 tutor at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig. Took over J. A. Ebert’s lectures on literary history there in 1770, becoming full professor in 1777 (the same year he married Marie Dorothea Schmid), lecturing also on philosophy, the formative arts, archaeology, and mythology and tutoring English and French students in German. Author of standard reference and theoretical works for classical literature and aesthetics. Published Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s posthumous works, having been a friend of Lessing earlier. Also a prolific translator, not least of the works of English aestheticians of the time and of the works of Shakespeare (1775–84; 2nd ed. 1798–1806), the first complete translation of that material, thereby also setting a standard for later translations. Also wrote poetry, epics, and plays himself and was a contributor to Matthias Claudius’s Wandsbecker Bothe and Friedrich Nicolai’s Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek. (Portrait: ca. 1793, by Friedrich Georg Weitsch; Gleimhaus Halberstadt.)

Eschenburg, Louise Friedericke Elisabeth (23 November 1785–14 March 1843): Daughter of Johann Joachim and Dorothea Eschenburg; from 7 June 1810 wife of the Westphalian appeals judge for commercial affairs Rudolph Heinrich Lüdessen (1778–1826). She had one other living sister during Caroline’s stay in Braunschweig 1795–96, namely, Ferdinandine (27 December 1790–2 January 1874), who became a canoness in Braunschweig; i.e., Louise was the only Eschenburg daughter who married (an earlier sister died in infancy in 1780, and another was stillborn in 1781).

Eschenburg, Marie Dorothea, née Schmid (1751–99): Daughter of (so Erich Schmidt: “the ponderously learned”) Konrad Arnold Schmid (1716–89, philologist and translator, from 1760 professor of theology and classical literature at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig); from 19 October 1777 wife of Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Eschenmayer, Adolph Carl August (1768–1852): Philosopher, physician. Lectures he attended at the Karlsakademie near Stuttgart prompted him to study medicine, which he pursued in Tübingen and for a time in Göttingen. Became a physician in Kirchheim in Württemberg, then in Sulz, where he also became personal physician to the widowed Duchess Franziska of Württemberg. Equally philosopher and physician, he became interested in Schelling’s philosophy of nature, which influenced his Versuch, die Gesetze magnetischer Erscheinungen aus Sätzen der Naturmetaphysik zu entwickeln (1798), though subsequent interests, including in somnambulism, prompted criticism. From 1811 associate professor of medicine and philosophy in Tübingen, from 1818 full professor. His lectures on psychiatry contributed to the establishment of psychiatry at the university.

Esebeck, Johann Friedrich Ludwig Jordan von (1741–1798): Palatinate-Zweibrücken state minister, from 1792 privy state minister, functioned essentially as the foreign minister for Duke Karl II August of Zweibrücken; apparently owed his position to the intervention of his wife, Karoline Auguste Gayling von Altheim, who was the duke’s mistress.

Esterházy, Anton (1738–94): Captain of the Hungarian Noble Life Guard from September 1791 until his death in 1794; commander of an autonomous corps on the Upper Rhine at the beginning of the War of the First Coalition on the side of the Prussians and Austrians.

Ettinger, Anna Caroline, née Seidler: Daughter of the Weimar consistory councilor J. W. Seidler, wife of Carl Wilhelm Ettinger, sister of Amalie Reichard and of both wives of Friedrich Jacobs (who married Christiane Seidler in 1792, then, after her death in late 1812, her younger sister, Dorothea [Dorette] Seidler, in 1817), aunt of the painter Luise Seidler.

Ettinger, Carl (Karl) Wilhelm (1736[41?] Gotha–1804 Gotha): Bookseller. Married to Anna Caroline Ettinger, sister of Amalie Reichard. Worked initially in the Gotha bookstore owned by J. P. Mevius and run by J. C. Dieterich (Lotte Michaelis’s later father-in-law). In 1775 Ettinger bought the company, a sale including the rights to the Almanach de Gotha and the Gothaische genealogischer Hofkalender. In 1785 he purchased the Weber Publishing Company in Erfurt and also owned a musical printing shop. Published the Gothaische Gelehrte Zeitung as well as Goethe’s Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären (1790).

Ettinger, Karoline (Caroline) (1783–1847): Daughter of Jena publisher Carl Wilhelm Ettinger; from 1811 married to the Gotha librarian and writer and later Gymnasium director in Bromberg August Arnold. Niece of Amalie Reichard, née Seidler, for whom she cared during the latter’s final, lengthy illness before Amalie’s death in July 1805. Duke August Emil Leopold of Saxony-Gotha dedicated his book Kyllenion oder ein Jahr in Arkadien (1805) to her in an acrostic poem at the beginning of the book.

Friedrich_EunickeEunicke, Friedrich (1764–1844): Singer, actor, musician, composer. From a musical family, and because he was too poor to study theology, he joined a choral group in Berlin, and his reputation as a tenor secured him a position as a chamber singer in Schwedt, where in 1788 he married the actress Henriette Schüler (later Meyer). Performed in Mannheim in 1788, from 1789 in Mainz, from 1792 in Bonn, from 1793 in Amsterdam, from 1795 in Frankfurt, and finally from 1796 in Berlin, where he remained (and where his first wife, Henriette, née Schüler, was also performing). From 1797 married to Therese, née Schwachhofer. (Portrait: unknown provenance.)

Therese_EunickeEunicke, Therese, née Schwachhofer (Schwaichhofer) (1778–1849): Daughter of the concert master in Mainz, from 1797 married to Friedrich Eunicke, whom she had met in Mainz; 1796–1830 a popular soubrette at the royal theater in Berlin. (Portrait: Katalog zur Ausstellung deutscher Kunst aus der Zeit von 1775–1875 in der Königlichen Nationalgalerie Berlin, 2 vols. [Munich 1906].)

Euripides (ca. 485/480–406 B.C.): The third of the three great Athenian tragedians (after Aeschylus and Sophocles). Moved away from traditional Attic tragedy by showing strong women characters and intelligent slaves, and by satirizing many heroes of Greek mythology and focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters, though such characterizations sometimes came at the expense of a realistic plot; he frequently relied upon the deus ex machina to resolve his plays.

Eyring (Eyering), Jeremias Nicolaus (1739–1803): From 1762 assistant director of the Gymnasium in Göttingen, from 1765 rector, from 1773 director; from 1763 also university library administrator and from 1780 full professor. Luise Wiedemann mentions the engagements of his daughter.