Haeberle, Franz Xavier von (dates uncertain): Physician and hospital director in Munich. Studied in Ingolstadt, then practiced medicine in Munich from 1784. From 1788 physician in the Maximilian Hospital and St. Anne’s, from 26 April 1797 medical Rath, as which in 1799 he initiated the construction of the General Hospital in Munich, prompting a vehement feud with anonymous opponents in the Munich newspapers. Also known for having installed a new kind of ventilation system in the hospital that introduced fresh air through elevated air towers and lateral roof openings.
Hagedorn, Friedrich von (1708–54): Writer, composing poetry even as a child. After studying law and literature in Jena, debt prompted him to work in London (1729–31) as a diplomat, then as a private house tutor. From 1733 he worked for an English mercantile company in Hamburg, though he also found time to publish poetry reflecting the elegant rococo style as well as fables, for one of which, the verse fable Johann der Seifensieder (Johann the soap-boiler) (1738), he was well known for years afterward. Influenced by Horace (he himself was called the “German Horace”), though also by English and French authors. Influenced Lessing and the young Goethe. Zweihundert deutsche Männer in Bildnissen und Lebensbeschreibungen, ed. Ludwig Bechstein [Leipzig 1854], unpaginated [alphabetical] entry on Friedrich von Hagedorn.)
Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der (1780–1856): Early scholar of German studies in Berlin known esp. for his editions and translations of Middle High German texts, e.g., the Nibelungenlied and early lyric poetry.
Hagenmeier (Hagemeier, Hagemaier, Hegemeier), Aloys (Alois) (21 December 1767–1807?): Royal medical Rath, senior staff surgeon, senior professor of surgery at the Academy of Surgery in Munich. Studied in Heidelberg, Strasbourg, and Paris. Traveled widely in Germany and Switzerland. From 1791 in Munich, from 1793 again in Paris. Founded a mineral-springs institute in Mannheim for medical-pedagogical physical therapy.
Haide, Johann Michael Friedrich (1771–1840): Actor. First studied medicine, but from ca. 1791 began working with various theater companies before achieving fame at the court theater in Weimar from 1793 and becoming the regular second leading man. In 1798 Goethe managed to prevent him from being dismissed. Haide left in 1807 to perform in Vienna but returned the following year and performed regularly from 1808 to 1818, after which he retired before returning again to perform; retired permanently in 1832. Performed the title role in the premiere of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell in 1810 as well as many of the famous roles of the day (Karl Moor, Mahomet, the Capucine in Wallenstein). A favorite of both Schiller and Goethe, known for his emotional recitation and gestures.
Hamberger, Julius Wilhelm (1754–1813): Librarian. In an attempt to organize the Bavarian library system after the confiscation of monastery libraries in 1802, in March 1808 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi and Friedrich Schlichtegroll brought Hamberger to Munich from Gotha, where he had been librarian, to implement the system used in Göttingen (which had developed by Therese Huber’s father Christian Gottlob. Heyne) and to assist Johann Christoph von Aretin, who, as it turned out, did not have the training for project of this size and complexity. Hamberger in his own turn tried to organize the holdings by filing books under a specific topic within a systematic catalog corresponding to shelf order. Although progress was made, Hamberger suffered mental illness in 1811 and had to be institutionalized. From 1797 married to Marie Luise, née Braun.
Hamberger, Marie Luise (Louise), née Braun (1762–7 April 1834): A native of Kassel, musician (singing, piano, mandolin). Her father, the violinist Anton Braun (1729–99), a member of the royal orchestra in Kassel, provided the early musical instruction and her and her brothers, the latter of whom eventually were members of orchestras in Berlin, Würzburg, and Ludwigslust. From 1780 she was a virtuoso chamber singer, piano virtuoso, and reader for the dowager Duchess Charlotte von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, her soulful and moving singing voice, apparently attracting the attention of composers in Gotha. In Kassel she participated in productions of Italian and German operas at the explicit request of Landgrave Friedrich II, and afterward in court concerts, theatrical productions, and church concerts in Gotha. From 1797 married to Julius Hamburger in Gotha and, from 1808, in Munich.
Hamilton, Anthony (Antoine) (ca. 1646–1720): Englishman who first came to France during the first exile of the Stuarts (1649–60) and settled there in 1688. Author of verses and witty fairy tales in French.
Hamilton, Lady Emma (ca. 1765–1815): Born Amy Lyon to a blacksmith in Cheshire, England. As “Emma Hart” (not “Carte,” as in Erich Schmidt , 1:722), from 1791 married to British diplomat and envoy to the court of Naples (1764–1800) Sir William Hamilton (1730–1803), having been tricked into moving to Naples allegedly for a vacation. Later became the mistress of British naval officer Lord Horatio Viscount Nelson (1758–1805), whom she met in 1793. While in Naples, in 1787 Emma developed the notion suggested to her earlier by the painter George Romney in England of posing in costumes suggesting images from Greek and Roman mythology, “attitudes,” with salon audiences guessing which characters and scenes she was portraying. (Portrait 1782 by George Romney.)
Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph von (1774–1856): Scholar of oriental and Near Eastern studies. Educated in Vienna, published poetry influenced by oriental writing and in the style of Wieland in Der Neue Teutsche Merkur. Sent to Constantinople in 1799 as internuncio, participated in the British campaign in Egypt in 1801, and became a legation official in Constantinople in 1802, where he collected and translated Arabic, Turkish, and Persian manuscripts.
Hanbury, Caroline, née Bohn (1758–1832): Daughter of Hamburg bookseller Johann Carl Bohn and thus sister of Johanne Frommann’s mother; wife of William Hanbury (1755–98), English consul in Hamburg; the couple had four daughters, the eldest of which married in Jena.
Hane, John (1760– ? in Altona): British merchant in Altona, from 1799 (marriage license 21 April 1799) second husband of Maria Francisca Magdalene Antoinette, née Majus, widowed Sympher (1760– ? in Altona), the stepmother of Philipp Michaelis’s wife, Auguste Katharine, née Sympher. Caroline stayed with them during her visit to Hamburg in April 1801. Hane was involved in a dispute with the postal service in Altona in 1798, even publishing a book on the affair: John Hane’s gegründete Beschwerden gegen das Postamt zu Altona, namentlich Dr. Chr. Gottl. Hirschfeld, Postmeister Kisz und Meyer, Schreiber. Aus dem Englischen übersezzet.
Hannibal, Ehrenreich (or Ehrenfried) (9 April 1678–13 August 1741): Originally from Stockholm, a respected metal artisan and coin engraver who from 1713 was the Master of the Mint and Die-Cutter of the Clausthal Mint. His son, Martin Conrad Hannibal (1704–66), succeeded him in office. It is possible but uncertain whether Caroline was acquainted with the later family in Clausthal. (Biographical Dictionary of Medallists, Coin-, Gem-, and Seal-Engravers, Mint-Masters, &c., Ancient and Modern, with references to their works, BC 500–AD 1900, vol. 2, ed. L. Forrer [London 1904] 420, 422; Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 15, ed. Ulrich Thieme and Fred C. willis [Leipzig 1922] 593.)
Hannibal, Friedrich Wilhelm (1710–61): Son of Ehrenreich Hannibal, brother of Martin Konrad Hannibal. Studied theology, initially working as a lower-ranking pastor in Helmstedt, then 1739–51 as the assistant pastor and 1751–61 as senior pastor in St. Andreasberg in the Harz Mountains, though he is attested as such in St. Andreasberg as late as 1785 despite his date of death being given as 1761.
Hannibal, Martin Conrad (ca. 1704–13 May 1766): Successor (though born out of wedlock) to his father, Ehrenreich Hannibal, as die-cutter, metal artisan, and numismatic administrator in Clausthal. Apprenticed in Stockholm (his father was Swedish). From 7 December 1752 married to Luise Christine, née Diester, a native of Hannover. Caroline seems to have been acquaintaed with the extended family when she lived there.
Hannover Maria von(1723–72): A sister of later king George III and from 1740 Landgravine of Hessen-Kassel as wife of Friedrich II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. She and Friedrich II separated in 1754 (not divorcing made it more difficult for him to remarry), he having converted to Catholicism in 1749; she took his three sons to Denmark in 1756.
She and the children also received the duchy of Hanau, which was severed from Hesse-Kassel. In Denmark, she would also care for the children of her late sister, Queen Louise († 1756) at the Danish court. Her sons were raised in Denmark, and two remained there their entire lives. Friedrich II never saw Maria again, and did not see his sons again until 1782.
Hanstein, Antoinette Charlotte Wilhelmine Friederike von (11 April 1777–12 October 1826): Daughter of Generalmajor von Hanstein in Marburg. One of the Hansteins with whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg 1789–92; may have been the twin sister of Karoline Henriette (dates uncertain), both of whom Caroline encountered later in Munich (see Caroline’s letter from Munich to Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, on 31 January 1807 [letter 421]), by which time Antoinette had since November 1799 been married to Karl Heinrich Ernst Friedrich von Bothmer and already had six children (they would eventually have eight): Luise Glamorine (19 March 1803); Felix Gottlob Christian Friedrich Karl (born 19 July 1804); and Friedrich (11 September 1805); Adolf would be born on 2 December 1807. (Biographical information in part from Marburger Sippenbuch 1500–1850, bearbeitet von Kurt Stahr, 23 Bände, Marburg 1950–66, maschinenschriftliches Manuskript [Exemplare im Hessischen Staatsarchiv Marburg, im Stadtarchiv Marburg, im Universitätsmuseum Marburg, bei der Familienkundlichen Vereinigung Kassel], no. 15727.)
Hanstein, Generalmajor (dates unknown): Seems to have been head of the von Hanstein family with whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg. Father of Christine Luise Charlotte Eleonore (born ca. 1777, conf. 1791), Antoinette Charlotte Wilhelmine Friederike (born ca. 1778, conf. 1792), the latter possibly (uncertain) the twin sister of Karoline Henriette (born ca. 1778, conf. 1791); and Wilhelmine (Minette) Philippine Friederike Henriette Louise von Hanstein. (Biographical information in part from Marburger Sippenbuch 1500–1850, bearbeitet von Kurt Stahr, 23 Bände, Marburg 1950–66, maschinenschriftliches Manuskript [Exemplare im Hessischen Staatsarchiv Marburg, im Stadtarchiv Marburg, im Universitätsmuseum Marburg, bei der Familienkundlichen Vereinigung Kassel], no. 15727.) Caroline would later encounter Antoinette and Karoline (Caroilne) in Munich (see her letter from Munich to Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, on 31 January 1807 [letter 421]).
Hanstein, Georg Ernst von (1761–1819): Son of Johann Carl Friedrich Sittich von Hanstein of the Oberstein line of the Hanstein family. One of the officers functioning as chaperons for the sons of George III during their study in Göttingen. In 1788 he accompanied Prince Augustus Frederick (later Duke of Sussex) to the south of France during the latter’s illness, then in 1789 on a longer journey to Italy, where the prince entered into his unsanctioned marriage with Lady Auguste Murray. Von Hanstein later abandoned his military career and became the bailiff in Münden, though he died in Göttingen.
Hanstein, Karoline Henriette von (born ca. 1778, conf. 1791): Daughter of Generalmajor von Hanstein in Marburg. One of the Hansteins with whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg 1789–92; may have been the twin sister of Antoinette Charlotte Wilhelmine Friederike von Hanstein (dates uncertain). Caroline will later encounter the two women in Munich (see her letter from Munich to Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, on 31 January 1807 [letter 421]). (Biographical information Marburger Sippenbuch 1500–1850, bearbeitet von Kurt Stahr, 23 Bände, Marburg 1950–66, maschinenschriftliches Manuskript [Exemplare im Hessischen Staatsarchiv Marburg, im Stadtarchiv Marburg, im Universit–tsmuseum Marburg, bei der Familienkundlichen Vereinigung Kassel], no. 15727.)
Hanstein, Wilhelmine Philippine Friederike Henriette Louise von (1769–1864): From 1805 canoness in Oberkirchen, from 1847 mother superior there, and presumably the “Minette . . . in a convent in Westphalia” whom Caroline mentions in her letter to Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, on 31 January 1807 (letter 421), and thus sister of Karoline Henriette and Antoinette Charlotte von Hanstein, with all three of whom Caroline was acquainted in Marburg. (Kurhessischer Staats- und Adress-Kalender auf das Jahr 1818 [Kassel 1818], 235; obituary: Allgemeine Zeitung München , supplement to no. 271 [Tuesday, 27 September 1864], 4102; also Annette von Droste-Hülshof, Historisch-kritische Ausgabe: Werke, Briefwechsel, vol. 12/2 , 1036.)
Hardenberg, Friedrich August Burkhard von (1770–1837): Brother of Charlotte von Marenholz; from 1787 lieutenant in the Hannoverian garde du corps, leaving Hannoverian service in 1796 to become a finance administrator in Prussian service; from 1796 husband of Johanne Henriette Eleonore von Uslar († 1797), marrying a second time in 1800. Allegedly one of Elise Bürger’s paramours; she apparently stayed briefly with him after her divorce from Gottfried August Bürger.
Hardenberg, Anton Georg (or Georg Anton) von (1781–1825): Brother of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). Attended the school in Pforta 1795–96, from 1797 served in the regiment of Prince Clemens in Weissensee, eventually became a Prussian Landrath, also a writer, used the pseudonym “Sylvester.”
Hardenberg, Bernhard von (5 February 1787 [some sources say 1785]–28 October 1800): Brother of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). Committed suicide by plunging into the Saale River on 28 October 1800, the news of which allegedly prompted renewed hemorrhaging in Friedrich von Hardenberg, who was already ill.
Hardenberg, Georg Philipp Friedrich von (Novalis) (1772–25 March 1801): Writer, philosopher. Born on the family manorial estate in the Harz Mountains. From 1790 studied law in Jena, where he attended Schiller’s lectures and was one of the students who helped watch over Schiller during the latter’s serious illness in 1791. From late 1791 he studied in Leipzig, where he met Friedrich Schlegel, and then in Wittenberg, where he also studied agricultural sciences, finishing his studies in 1793 before accepting an administrative position in Tennstedt. Also became acquainted during this period with Goethe and Herder. Toward the end of 1794 he met twelve-year-old Sophie von Kühn, becoming secretly engaged in March 1795, though she then fell ill with tuberculosis in November. Met Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Hölderlin at the house of Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer in Jena in the summer of 1795, thereafter becoming intensively engaged in a study of Fichte’s philosophy. From 1796 administrator at the salt mining company in Weissenfels. Sophie underwent an operation in Jena in June, returned to her home in Grüningen in December and died in March 1797, an event that influenced much of Hardenberg’s later work. In the summer of 1797 he met Wilhelm Schlegel and Caroline in Jena for the first time. In late 1797 he entered the mining academy in Freiberg in Saxony, studying under Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750–1817) and continuing his studies in philosophy. Published his collection Blüthenstaub in the first issue of Athenaeum (1798), using the pseudonym “Novalis.” Although he did not live in Jena during this period, he maintained contact with the Schlegel group, also meeting them in Dresden in the summer of 1798 for visits to the art gallery. From December 1798 engaged to Julie von Charpentier, daughter of a professor in Freiberg. In May 1799 he returned to Weissenfels in an administrative position with the mines, and during that summer became acquainted with Ludwig Tieck, also visiting Herder and Goethe, and meeting H. Steffens for the first time in August. On 6 December 1800 appointed administrator for Thuringia, but had already begun to show signs of having contracted tuberculosis himself. Died on 25 March 1801 after returning to Weissenfels from a trip to Dresden in January. Many of his fragments and works were published posthumously by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel. Caroline will mention his final medical treatments in Jena, and Friedrich Schlegel, who was present at his death, will describe his final hours. (1799 portrait traditionally attributed to Franz Gareis; recent research suggests that it was done by Ludwig Tieck’s sister-in-law Maria Agatha Alberti, possibly posthumously. Forschungsstätte für Frühromantik und Novalis-Museum, Schloss Oberwiederstedt.)
Hardenberg, Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus von (1738–1814): Father of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis), from 1784 mining director of the Electoral Saxon Salt Mines in Dürrenberg, Kösen, and Artern. The family manorial estate was in Oberwiederstedt in the Harz Mountains.
Hardenberg, Carl (Karl) von (1776–1813): Brother of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). From 1790 in Saxon military service, from 1793 lieutenant stationed in Lützen and Weissenfels, 1793 and 1796 participated in the campaigns against France, retired from the military in 1801, later becoming a magistrate. Initially oversaw the literary estate of his brother. From 1802 married to Karoline von Uttenhofen. From 1806 chamberlain in the service of the Grand Duke of Würzburg (Hardenberg converted to Catholicism in 1807), lived part of the time in Unterzell near Würzburg, where Friedrich Schlegel visited him in the summer of 1806.
Hardenberg, Auguste Sidonie von (1779–1801): Sister of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). Died from consumption on 17 November 1801, her brother Friedrich having died from consumption on 25 March of the same year.
Hare, Julius Charles (1795–1855): Born in Italy, came to England with his parents in 1799, met Goethe and Schiller during a trip to Weimar with his parents in 1805/5. Originally studied law, switched to theology, then from 1818 was a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1832 rector of Hurstmonceaux; held various church positions and published widely. Acquainted with contemporary German thought through his travels in Germany, he translated and defended Barthold Georg Niebuhr’s History of Rome (originally lectures in Berlin), advocated the newer philology of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, and also translated works by Ludwig Tieck. (Portrait: frontispiece to Julius Charles Hare and Augustus William Hare, Guesses at Truth by Two Brothers [Boston 1861].)
Harms, August Heinrich Ludwig (176?–21 August 1839): Native of Mecklenburg, studied law in Göttingen, then worked as an auditor for government esgtates in Hagenow, later in Redefin. From 11 May 1801 received the title of Rath in this capacity, though resigned the same year and on 5 June 1801 married Emilie von Berlepsch. From 1804 lived near Bern, in Switzerland, from 1807 on Lake Zürich. Left Switzerland in 1813 because of the wars at the time and returned to Mecklenburg, though later had financial difficulties. From 1828 in Lauenburg, where Emilie von Berlepsch died in 1830. Harms returned to Schwerin but spent the remaining years of his life in an institute for the mentally impaired.
Hartknoch, Johann Friedrich (1769 [68?]–1819): Bookseller, publisher. From 1765 his father (1740–1789) had his own publishing company in Riga, Latvia, with contacts to companies in Königsberg, Leipzig, Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Moscow. The company was one of the most important publishers in promoting literature in northeastern Europe during the late eighteenth century.
Hartleben, Theodor Konrad (24 June 1770–15 June 1827): A native of Mainz, jurist, receiving his degree in 1790 in Mainz, where he also taught at the university. Initially in the service of the prince bishop in Speyer, from 1793 magistrate in Deidesheim, from 1795 teacher of imperial law at the university in Salzburg, where during the French occupation in 1800 he also became police director. It was here that he began published his periodical, the Allgemeine Justiz- und Polizei-Fama. From 1803 Bavarian state administrator and professor in Würzburg, no longer having a particularly good relationship with the government in Salzburg. Hence he left Würzburg in 1806 as a result of the same geopolitical changes that prompted Schelling to leave, and entered the service of Saxony Coburg, providing valuable service esp. during the French administration of the town and state. From August 1807 director of the Ducal State Administration revisional court. Dismissed in the summer of 1808, becoming professor of practical law and regional counselor (Kreisrath) in Freiburg the same year. Transferred then to Durlach, from 1818 to Mainz as the senior administrator of the Central Commission for Shipping Navigation, from 1819 to Karlsruhe as privy counselor. Then entered service in Baden in various positions in the justice and police administration. A prolific scholarly writer.
Hartmann, Christian Ferdinand (1774–1842): Painter. Initial artistic training in Stuttgart, 1794–98 in Rome and Naples, from 1799 again in Stuttgart, where he became a member of the Academy of the Formative Arts. In 1799 he shared the first prize in the Weimar art competition for his rendering of Hector’s Farewell, though a visit to Weimar in 1801 resulted in a break with the artistic views of the circle around Goethe, which may account for Caroline’s disinclination toward him (letter 342a). From 1803 in Dresden, where he became acquainted with P. O. Runge and C. D. Friedrich and participated in the beginnings of Romantic painting. 1808/09 assisted Heinrich von Kleist in publishing the latter’s journal Phöbus. From 1810 professor at the Dresden Academy of Formative Arts, becoming its head in 1825.
Hartmann, Friederike Dorothea (1773–1820): from Hannover, an acquaintance of Luise Michaelis in Gotha and a niece of Sarah Elisabeth Schläger. Friederike’s mother was Eleonora Louise Schauer (1731–1807), Sarah Elisabeth Schläger’s sister, who married Johann Georg Hartmann (1733–91) in 1760. Friederike married Christian Wilhelm Jacobs in Gotha in 1798.
Hartung, August (11 March 1762–December 1834): Professor of German language and literature in at the Berlin Military Academy for Nobility and head of two private schools there. Born in Bernburg, the second of ten children. From 1778 his uncle made it possible for him to attend the Friedrich Werder Gymnasium in Berlin, where he also performed in the school chorus and studied und Friedrich Gedike, who inspired him to study philology, which he hoped to combine with theology, though the death of his uncle and the resulting withdrawal of support forced him to abandon theology. He then acquired a position as teacher and precentor at the Berlin cathedral, though he first had to go through an apprenticeship at a small village outside Berlin. For more on his biography, see his own account in August Hartung, Geschichte der Berliner-Domschulen (Berlin 1836).
Hartwig, Friederike Wilhelmine, née Worthon (or Werthen) (21 June 1777–20 January 1849): A native of Leipzig. Court actress in Dresden. Performed initially as a dancer, then at thirteen with the Schuch company in Rostock, thereafter in Schwerin, Bremen, and Hannover. From 1792 married to the actor Hartwig. From 1796 a member of Franz Seconda’s company, which alternated between Dresden and Leipzig; her first role in Leipzig was as Luise in Schiller’s Kabale und Liebe, and in Dresden as Kathinka in Franz Kratter’s Das Mädchen von Marienburg. An extremely respected and popular actress, being praised for her facial expressions, gestures, and overall bearing; even her brown eyes were extolled. Only her tone of voice was occasionally criticized, being allegedly too broad and inclined to a sing-song delivery. She was the first to perform the role of Johann in Schiller’s Jungfrau von Orleans (11 September 1801). Schiller saw her perform the role on 17 September 1801. She later transitioned to comic roles and roles as a mother. Performed for over fifty years.
Hase, Friedrich Traugott (1754–1823): Writer. After studying law in Leipzig, worked as an administrative official in Dresden. 1776–78 published the Leipziger Musenalmanach. Became known for the incorporation of dialogue into his novels.
Haug, Johann Christoph Friedrich (1761–1829): Writer, poet, studied law at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart, popular in the circle around Schiller at the time. From 1783 in royal service, from 1793 in the privy council, from 1807 to 1817 editor of the Morgenblatt für Gebildete Stände. Popular poet and writer in Stuttgart with an apparently extremely affable and easy-going personality.
Haugwitz, Christian August Heinrich Curt von Haugwitz (11 June 1752–9 February 1832): Prussian statesman, diplomat. From 11 April 1777 married to Johanna Katharina, née von Tauentzien. From 1792 cabinet minister in Berlin with a focus on foreign policy, from 1802 essentially headed that department alone, though he withdrew in 1804 after the French occupied Hannover and the king declined his petition to demand a French withdrawal or declare war on France. Recalled in 1805, remained in Prussian service till 1806, then withdrew into private life. From 1811 curator of the university in Breslau, though from 1820 lived primarily in Italy.
Haugwitz, Johanna Katharina, née von Tauentzien (born 23 February 1755): Daughter of General Friedrich Bogislav von Tauentzien (Governor of Breslau), from 11 April 1777 wife of Christian August Heinrich Curt von Haugwitz.
Haydn, Franz Joseph (1732–1809): Prolific Austrian composer whose works include orchestral and chamber music, Latin masses, and oratorios. Often called the “Father of the Symphony” and “Father of the String Quartet.”
Haym, Rudolf (1821–1901): Scholar of German literary history, member of the Frankfurt Parliament, liberal politician, professor in Halle, founder of the influential periodical Preussische Jahrbücher, Caroline’s first biographer, author of the first definitive work on the Romantic school, Die romantische Schule. (Portrait: ca. 1847, Rudolf Haym, Aus meinem Leben: Erinnerungen [Berlin 1902], following p. 112.)
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831): One of the philosophers associated with the florescence of German Idealism. Educated 1788–93 at the seminary in Tübingen, where he was close friends with Friedrich Hölderlin and the younger Schelling. In 1793–96 he worked as a private tutor in Bern, Switzerland, and in 1797–99 in Frankfurt. After the death of his father in January 1799, his small inheritance and contact with Schelling enabled him to move to Jena in January 1801 and attain his Habilitation on 27 August 1801, enabling him to work as a lecturer. In 1805 he was appointed associate professor (extraordinarius; see the Intellligenzblatt of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 71 [4 May 1805], 576), and remained until 1807. Although he published several well-received works during this period and co-published the Kritisches Journal der Philosophie with Schelling, the most significant was his Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807). Financial instability and especially the aftermath of the Battle of Jena in 1806 prompted him to move to Bamberg in 1807, where through the mediation of Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer he took over editorial responsibility for the Bamberger Zeitung. Niethammer also helped him become director of a Gymnasium in Nürnberg in 1808, where in 1811 he married Marie von Tucher. His first university appointment came in 1816 in Heidelberg, where he remained until receiving an appointment in Berlin as the successor to Fichte, where he remained the rest of his life. (Portrait [excerpt]: by Julius Ludwig Sebbers.)
Hegewisch, Dietrich Hermann (1746–1812): Studied theology in Göttingen but soon had doubts about the profession. From 1775 till 1780 private businessman in Hamburg, but also wrote a life of Charlemagne that Klopstock, among others, convinced him to publish, prompting his appointment as professor of history in Kiel at Easter 1780. Married to Benedikta Elisabeth, née Kramer.
Hegewisch, Julie (1795–1826): Daughter of Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch and his wife Benedikta Elisabeth, née Kramer, in Kiel; from 1817 wife of historian and politician Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann. Her sister (two years older): Mimi. Wilhelm Schlegel apparently intensely courted Julie Hegewisch during his stay in Kiel in 1813–14.
Hegewisch, Franz Hermann (1783–1865): Son of Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch in Kiel. Earned his Dr. med. in Kiel on 12 February 1805. From 1809 professor of medicine in Kiel, from 1840 state councilor (Etatsrath); Luise Wiedemann’s personal physician in Kiel. His daughter Lotte published handwritten memoirs from this period (Kiel 1902).
Heindorf, Ludwig Friedrich (1774–1816): Classical philologist in Berlin, from 1796 subrector at the Köllnisch Gymnasium there, from 1810 professor of classical philology in Berlin, then in Breslau and Halle.
Heine, Heinrich (1797–1856): Poet and critic, from 1831 in Paris. His writing, while still drawing from Romanticism, yet transcended it in expressing a more modern sensibility in politics, social criticism, and wit.
Heinrich, Christoph Gottlob (1748–1810): Studied law in Leipzig, esp. historical topics; from 1781 professor of history in Jena, from 1790 ducal Saxon-Weimar Hofrath; prorector of the university during the summer semester 1800.
Nassau-Saarbrücken, Prince Heinrich Ludwig Karl Albrecht von (9 March 1768–97[99?]): The prince of Nassau-Saarbrücken mentioned in several letters and Luise Wiedemann’s memoirs and who attended Caroline’s wedding. Although conflicting dates are given, it seems in 1779, when he was eleven years old, he was engaged to Maria Franziska Maximiliane, Princess von St. Maurice-Montbarrey, seven years his senior (1761–1838) and daughter of Alexandre-Marie-Léonor de St. Mauris de Montbarrey, the French minister of war from 1777 till 1780 (she lived in Paris after the wedding). From March 1782 he studied physics in Göttingen under Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, living at the house of Johann Heinrich Grätzel and remainining in Göttingen till September 1785, after which he traveled extensively in Europe, though on 6 October 1785 he did marry the princess. Because of the French Revolution, both he and his father had to leave the Saabrücken territory. Entered Prussian military service but had to watch the French burn his ancestral castle in October 1793. He died in 1797 (1799?) after a fall from a horse. The line Nassau-Saarbrücken died out with him, since his marriage was childless, and its rights passed to the house Nassau-Usingen, which later received compensation on the right bank of the Rhine for the loss of the Saarbrücken holdings.
Heinse, Johann Jakob Wilhelm (1746–1803): Writer. Initially studied law in Jena but decided to follow his literary interests. After a time as a private tutor, collaborated with Johann Georg Jacobi in publishing the journal Iris, became acquainted with Goethe and the Storm-and-Stress author Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, then from 1780 spent three years in Italy. After his return worked for the Electoral Archbishop of Mainz, from 1787 as librarian, along with Georg Forster, following the prince’s successor, Karl Theodor von Dalberg, to Aschaffenburg in 1795. Probably best known for his novel Ardinghello, und die glückseeligen Inseln (2 vols., 1787), which for its time was a quite suggestive, sensuous, for some even scandalous novel, whence the comparison of which Novalis speaks in these letters. (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 256.)
Heinze, Johann Michael (1717–90): From 1749 conrector of the secondary school for the nobility in Lüneburg, from 1753 its rector, from 1770 director of the Gymnasium in Weimar. Published numerous widely used translations of the classics, e.g., Cicero, Seneco, and Demosthenes.
Heinze, Valentin August (1758–1801): Son of Johann Michael Heinze, rector of the Gymnasium in Weimar, brother of Dorothea Heinze (wife of Carl Friedrich Günther Ruprecht), from 1788 professor of statistics and political science in Kiel.
Heise, Georg Arnold (1778–1851): Jurist, friend of Johann Diederich Gries (both were from Hamburg). Studied law in Jena, then from 1803 taught law in Göttingen, from 1804 in Heidelberg, from 1814 again in Göttingen, from 1820 president of the upper court of appeals in Lübeck.
Hellfeld, Christian August Friedrich von (variously also Johann August Christian) (1757–1840): Son of a respected Jena pandectist, Johann August von Hellfeld (1717–82). From 1783 professor of medicine in Jena, first professor to give lectures on psychiatric topics there. Wilhelm von Humboldt and his family lived in Hellfeld’s house at Unterm Markt 4 during their stay in Jena. Sources do not always provide consistent names for Hellfeld and his brothers, making it sometimes difficult to distinguish between them.
Hellwig, Johann Christian Ludwig (1743–1831): Mathematician, natural scientist. Accompanied Prince Wilhelm Adolf von Braunschweig on an educational journey to Russia; after the latter died during the journey, Hellwig accompanied the body back to Braunschweig in 1770 and remained there. From 1771 taught at the Braunschweig Gymnasium, 1773 received his doctorate in Helmstedt, 1790 the title of professor, then from 1802 professor of mathematics and science at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig. Also interested in mineralogy and entomology, his collection of insects ultimately constituting the basis for the collection at the university of Berlin. Also pioneered the modern idea of life insurance.
Helmont, Jan Baptista van (1577–1644): Seventeenth-century Dutch chemist and mystic. Flemish physician, philosopher, mystic, and chemist who drew on the doctrines of Paracelsus in developing vitalistic doctrine of nature based on the notion of non-mechanical causalities, including the formative powers of nature herself, the archeus, which gives natural objects and especially organisms their form and shape. Helmont also recognized the existence of discrete gases and identified carbon dioxide. Sometimes considered the first theoretical chemist. Primary works include Ortus medicinae (1648); Opera (1667).
Hemsterhuis, Franz (1721–90): Dutch philosopher and writer. Developed a mystical-poetic version of Neoplatonism that understood the material world as in some fashion an outflowing of the spirit. Beauty is associated with fulfilled impressions that are at the same time good insofar as it promotes union with the divine all. Hemsterhuis was in close contact with the Catholic circle around Princess Gallitzin in Münster, to which Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi and Johann Georg Hamann also belonged.
Henke, Adolph Christian Heinrich (1775–1843): Physician and pharmacologist originally from Erlangen, famous esp. in the field of legal medicine. Attended the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig, then the university in Helmstädt, attaining his doctorate in 1799, thereafter settling in Braunschweig. From 1804 in Wolfenbüttel, from 1805 professor in Erlangen (probably on the initiative of his friend Ernst Horn), though the Battle of Jena in 1806 put an end to his position, after which he entered a period of financial difficulty. During that period, however, he published quite actively and became interested in legal medicine, though also publishing — anonymously — a 4-vol. work on the military campaign of the allies against Napoleon. From 1818 professor again after Erlangen passed to Bavaria. His instructional book on legal medicine went through ten editions. (Portrait: by C. Felsing; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine.)
Hennebrith, Johann Nepomuk von (10 October 1754–20 October 1815): Habsburg official, from 1803 till 1806 director of the Salzburg court chamberlain’s office under Ferdinand III of Tuscany and member of the state council. From 1806 state administrative councilor in Würzburg, initially on the council overseeing and organizing the assumption of power for Ferdinand in Würzburg. When the Grand Duchy of Würzburg became Bavarian again in 1815, he entered Bavarian service but died soon thereafter.
Hennings, Adolph Friedrich August von (1746–1826): Enlightenment-era politician, journalist, and writer. 1793–1802 edited the Hamburg/Altona periodical Der Genius der Zeit to promote rationalistic virtues without necessarily tying such to religion. Goethe mocked him in the Xenien as a naive optimist.
Henrici, Christian Friedrich (1700–64): Author who used the pseudonym Picander (Manlius Ulpianus Picander). From 1719 studied law in Wittenberg and Leipzig, from 1727 postal administrator in Leipzig, from 1740 tax administrator and wine inspector. Published in a variety of poetic forms, including comic and occasional poetry, comedies of social satire, as well as texts for choral works by J. S. Bach, including the St. Matthew Passion. His writing could at times be crude, but his Teutsche Schauspiele (3 vols., 1726), in which he castigated errors and vices of contemporary drama, was a great success. Erich Schmidt describes him as “the elderly, untidy Leipzig poetaster Henrici-Picander, who composed poems for special occasions, especially weddings.”
Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776–1841): Philosopher, psychologist, pedagogue. Studied law in Jena, then changed to philosophy and literature under the influence of Fichte. Member of the student group “Bund der Freien Männer” in Jena dedicated to classical literature, a group that also include Johann Diederich Gries, Herbart quit his studies and took a private tutorial position in Switzerland, also (1798) becoming acquainted with Pestalozzi and his pedagogical ideas. Returned to his hometown of Oldenburg in 1800 (visiting Gries in Göttingen along the way), and after a stay in Bremen began a university career in Göttingen, where he also finished his degree. Later taught philosophy in Königsberg, in Kant’s former position, before returning to Göttingen. (Portrait: by Konrad Geyer, in Michael Schönitzer, Die grossen Deutschen im Bilde .)
Herder, Caroline, née Flachsland (1750–1809): A member of the literary circle in Darmstadt known as the Darmstädter Circle before becoming engaged to Johann Gottfried Herder in 1770 (married in 1773). The circle read Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock, Samuel Richardson, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Gottfried Herder, and Goethe, the latter also frequenting the circle himself at times while living in Frankfurt. (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 249.)
Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803): Writer, philosopher, cleric, from 1776 general superintendent in Weimar. Studied theology in Königsberg 1762–64, where he came under the influence of Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann, then worked as a teacher and pastor in Riga 1764–69. Traveled extensively. Met Goethe in Strasbourg 1770, then worked as court preacher in Bückeburg before coming to Weimar. Generally opposed the philosophy of Kant and developed instead an understanding of reason deriving from the development of language and human culture at large, the latter of which he eventually conceived as subject to cyclical, organic development covering the birth, growth, and ultimately also the death of certain cultures. Also translated and published collections of folk songs. (Portrait: 1785 by Anton Graff; Gleimhaus Halberstadt.)
Herder, Luise Theodora Emilie (1781–1860): Only daughter of Johann Gottfried and Caroline Herder in Weimar; from 1809 second wife of Carl Wilhelm Constantin Stichling (1766–1836), a Weimar administrator and grandson of Christoph Martin Wieland. Luise Herder tried her hand at literary works, including poems, essays, parables, and translations under the pseudonym Theodora.
Herder, Siegmund August Wolfgang (1776–1838): Son of Johann Gottfried and Caroline Herder. His contact with Goethe prompted an interest in the natural sciences, especially mineralogy and forestry, which he studied — along with physics, chemistry, and mineralogy — in Jena, Göttingen, and 1797–1800 in the Freiberg mining academy, where he became a close acquaintance of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) and Henrik Steffens. He acquired legal training in Wittenberg 1800–1802 (attaining his doctorate) and subsequently became a mining administrator in Marienberg, from 1804 in Freiberg itself, later in Warsaw and elsewhere.
Hermann, Gottfried (1772–1848): Classical philologist. Attended the university in Leipzig at the age of fourteen, studying law and classical philology and attaining his Habilitation in philology in 1794. Taught at Leipzig from 1797, from 1803 as a full professor; 1801–3 also senior librarian for the university library. Acquainted with Goethe for a time, published pioneering works on ancient metrics and Greek grammar, generally contributing considerably to the development of the linguistic and text-critical discipline of philology.
Hermes, Johann Timotheus (1738–1821): Protestant pastor and author who taught in Brandenburg, worked as a military chaplain, as a court preacher in Anhalt–Köthen, and then in Breslau. His own, moralizing novels were influenced by those of Samuel Richardson. His most popular novel was Sophiens Reise von Memel nach Sachsen (Leipzig 1770–72). (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 326.)
Herodotus (of Halicarnassos) (ca. 484–425 BCE): Greek historian, known as the “Father of History.” Known primarily for his histories concerning the Greco-Persian wars (490, 480–79 BCE), in which he also describes locales and cultures he visited around the Mediterranean and Black Seas
Herz, Henriette, née Lemos (1764–1847): From 1779 wife of Markus Herz, head of one of the leading intellectual salons in Berlin. Her family had immigrated to Berlin from Portugal. Her salon was frequented by representatives from all areas of science and culture, by young writers, and by people from all classes; the early Romantics were among this group, including Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Schlegel, Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt, Moses Mendelssohn, and the latter’s daughter, Dorothea Veit. After her husband died in 1803, her finances worsened and she eventually discontinued the salon. Lived in Rome 1817–19; early friend and intimate correspondent of Schleiermacher. (Portrait: after Anton Graff ; frontispiece to her memoirs, Henriette Herz: Ihr Leben und ihre Erinnerungen, ed. J.Fürst [Berlin 1858].)
Herz (Hertz), Naphtali Markus (1747–1803): Physician, philosopher, from 1779 husband of Henriette Herz. A native of Berlin, after initially preparing for a career in business Herz began studying philosophy and medicine in Königsberg, where he was a student of Kant and, indeed, functioned as the respondent when in 1770 Kant defended the Latin dissertation required for his own acceptance of a full professorship in logic and metaphysics. After returning to Berlin he became acquainted with representatives of the Jewish Enlightenment around Moses Mendelssohn. After completing his medical studies in Halle in 1774, he worked at the recently established Jewish hospital in Berlin. Appointed professor of philosophy in 1787 by Friedrich Wilhelm II, holding private lectures in his salon and publishing. One of the early advocates of Jewish emanciation along with Moses Mendelssohn. His and his wife’s, Henriette’s, salon became one of the most prominent intellectual centers in Berlin at the time. (Portrait: frontispiece to Neue allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek 33,1 .)
Herzlieb, Wilhelmine (Minchen, Minna, Mine) (2 May 1789–1865): Adopted daughter of the Jena publisher Friedrich Frommann in Jena, who had earlier published her father’s writings in Züllichau (modern Poland). Goethe was inordinately attracted to her in 1807, thereafter possibly incorporating some of her features into the character of Ottilie in his novel Die Wahlverwandschaften (1809). She left the Frommann’s house in 1808 and returned to Züllichau, where she became engaged, though the man’s mother objected. Before returning to Jena in the autumn of 1812, she became engaged yet again, who followed her back to Jena but discovered she did not love him. During her trip back, however, she quite inadvertently met King Wilhelm Friedrich III in Potsdam. Engaged unsuccessfully twice more after her return to Jena. From 1821 unhappily married to the Jena Professor Karl Walch, whom she had earlier turned away and whom she fled for a time to her brother in Prittagk shortly after the wedding. She could never bring herself to live with her husband, and after her brother’s death moved in with her sister-in-law in Züllichau. After her husband’s death in 1853, she returned to the Frommann house occasionally to visit. Died of heart failure in a mental asylum in Görlitz. (Portrait: frontispiece to Freundliches Begegnen: Goethe, Minchen Herzlieb und das Frommannsche Haus. Auf Grund von Fr. Frommann “Das Frommannsche Haus u. seine Freunde“, ed. Günther H. Wahnes [Stuttgart and Jena 1927].)
Hesiod (active ca. 750–650 BC): The first Greek (and therefore western) poet and writer who emerges as a distinct personality for us. As is the case with Homer, the dates of his life are uncertain. Evidence in his work suggests he may have come from a rural background, viz. his most famous poem, Works and Days, set in Greek rural life, a piece that offers advice for work and develops an understanding of the five ages of humans, which became deeply entrenched in western thinking, especially the idealized Golden Age. His Theogony presents a genealogy of the gods and as such preserves many of the myths of the Greek gods.
Hesse, Georg Friedrich Ernst (1771–1816): Weimar attorney. From 1793 administrative attorney in Weimar, from 1798 court attorney, from 1808 justice official. Represented Wilhelm Schlegel in his and Caroline’s divorce petition. Also represented the Weimar theater commission in disputes with actors.
Heun, Karl Gottlieb Samuel (pseudonym Heinrich Clauren) (1771–1854): Writer, especially of sentimental stories (e.g., the novel Mimili ) and fiction for middle-class readers, though also of comedies. Brother-in-law of Georg Joachim Göschen in Leipzig. (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 363.)
Heun, Marianne (dates unknown): Sister-in-law of Georg Joachim Göschen in Leipzig, sister of his wife, Henriette, and of the writer “Heinrich Clauren” (pseudonym of Karl Gottlieb Samuel Heun). Regrettably, little seems to be known about her.
Heusinger, Johann Heinrich (1766–1837): From 1795 lectured privately in Jena on Kant’s philosophy; contributed to Immanuel Niethammer’s philosophical journal. From 1797 worked at a pedagogical institute in Eisenach before moving to Dresden in 1798 and working as a private lecturer and in various pedagogical capacities.
Heydenreich, Karl Heinrich (1764–26 April 1801): Poet and philosophical writer. Studied philology and philosophy in Leipzig; from 1789 professor in Leipzig. Taken into custody for inability to pay debts and resigned his position at the university in 1798, withdrawing then to Burgwerben near Weissenfels to continue his writing. Died an alcoholic and in debt on 26 April 1801. Although generally an adherent of Kant, his opposition to Kant’s aesthetic formalism and attempts to reconcile it with sentimentalism prompted the opposition of Goethe and Schiller, who pilloried him in the Xenien.
Heyne, Carl Wilhelm Ludwig (1762–94): Son of Christian Gottlob Heyne, brother of Therese Heyne. 1777–83 student at the university in Göttingen, receiving his medical doctorate. After positions in quick succession in Kassel, Vienna, and Hamburg, from 1786 he worked as a military staff physician in Russia, from 1794 with the title of imperial Hofrath. According to Luise Wiedemann, he apparently died in the Crimea. See Piter Poel, Bilder aus vergangener Zeit, 267:
Although the older brother . . . with whom my relationship with his family brought me into some contact, had a basically sound personality and inclinations, he was particularly assiduous in developing such toward enhancing his professional calling as a physician. The court physician Zimmermann in Hannover freed [Christian Gottlob] Heyne from the worries that this son’s wild, dissolute lifestyle and perpetually increasing debt caused by promoting his transfer to Russia with a group of similar subjects as a governmental medical office, where he unfortunately soon died.
Heyne, Christian Gottlob (1729–1812) (Caroline will occasionally spell it “Heine”): Classical philologist, library director in Göttingen, from 1761 married to Therese Wilhelmine Franziska, née Weiss (mother of Therese Heyne), from 1777 to Georgine Christine Dorothee, née Brandes. Father of Therese Heyne (widowed Forster and Huber). After several periods of financial and professional instability as a young man, Heyne, who studied law and classical philology in Leipzig, was appointed professor in Göttingen in 1763, director of the philological seminar, and librarian in the university library, in the latter capacity also helping to introduce more modern methods of organizing and cataloguing libraries (also securing a position there for Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer). His lectures on archaeology helped establish it as a new university discipline. Editor of the Göttingsche Anzeigen von Gelehrten Sachen (known as the Göttinger Gelehrte Anzeigen). One of the most significant classical philologists of the time; Goethe mentions him in the opening book of Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, where Werther speaks about an acquaintance who has studied antiquity and aesthetics at the university and who has a “manuscript of Heyne’s work on antiquity” (notes of Heyne’s lectures circulated at the time). That notwithstanding, he was one of Caroline’s most severe critics. (Portrait: 1800 pastel by Ernst Christian Specht; courtesy of Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, Archiv der schleswig-thüringischen Familie Jacobs.)
Heyne, Georgine Christine Dorothee, née Brandes (1753–1834): From 1777 second wife of Christian Gottlob Heyne and stepmother of Therese Heyne. (Silhouette from Erika Wagner and Ulrich Joost, Göttinger Profile zwischen Aufklärung und Romantik [Neustadt: Dosse 2011], 40; by permission.)
Heyne, Marianne Louise Charlotte, married name Reuss (1768–1834): Daughter of Christian Gottlob Heyne, sister of Therese Heyne; from 1799 wife of Jeremias David Reuss. Visited Caroline in Clausthal in the autumn of 1785 (10 October–7 November). Because of her reputation in Göttingen at the time (she is said to have had affairs with Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter and Johann Nikolaus Forkel, and to have neglected her children, including Theresa), Caroline’s mother forbid Caroline from having anything to do with Therese Heyne when the two girls were younger.
Heyne, Marie Therese Wilhelmine, widowed Forster, widowed Huber (1764–1829): Writer, editor, translator, one of Caroline’s childhood friends and rivals. Daughter Christian Gottlob Heyne. Acquired an impressive if unsystematic education in Göttingen and at a boarding school in Hannover. After and during her passionate relationship with Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer in Göttingen, she married the scientist Georg Forster in 1784 (engagement on 18 April 1784, wedding on 4 September 1785) and lived with him in Vilnius (Poland), Göttingen, and 1788–92 in Mainz, where she became acquainted with Ludwig Ferdinand Huber. Her marriage to Forster was unhappy (the last two children were Huber’s), and even before he left Mainz to represent the Mainz Republic in Paris, she and Huber left Mainz in 1792 with her children, fleeing to Neuchâtel. After Forster’s death in 1793, she married Huber (1794), living initially in Switzerland and then in Tübingen (1798), Stuttgart, and Ulm (1803). After Huber’s death in 1804 she lived in various locales, including with her daughter in Ulm and ultimately in Augsburg. A prolific writer of novels, shorter pieces, travelogues, either under Huber’s name or a pseudonym, she was also editor of Johann Friedrich Cotta’s Morgenblatt für gebildete Stände (1816–23), whose content and character she influenced. (Portrait: miniature ca. 1820, possibly by Carl Ludwig Kaatz.)
Hillebrand, Karl (1829 in Giessen–1884 in Florence): Historian, native of Giessen, where he attended the university, also participating in the revolutionary struggles in Frankfurt in September 1848; although captured and scheduled for execution, managed to flee to France, eventually landing in Paris where during 1850 he worked as a secretary and lector to Heinrich Heine. Later worked in Bordeaux, studying philology, history, and classical and modern literature. From 1857 French citizen, receiving his doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1861. From 1863 professor in Douai, from 1866 lived in Paris, later as a private scholar in Florence. Published on French history and in leading French periodicals. (Portrait: frontispiece to Karl Hillebrand, Culturgeschichtliches. Aus dem Nachlasse von Karl Hillebrand, Zeiten, Völker und Menschen 7, ed. Jessie Hillebrand [Strassburg 1885].)
Hillern, Katharina (Cateau) von, née Gutermann (1734–93): Sister of Sophie von La Roche (she facilitated the relationship between Sophie and Christoph Martin Wieland); allegedly even more comely than Sophie, well-educated, interested in the arts and sciences, but more coquettish, anxious to please, and given to intrigues. From 1753 married to Johannes von Hillern (1725–65), the latter the mayor of Biberarch 1760–65, allegedly less cultivated than his wife, and given to playing cards and drinking. After his death, Christoph Martin Wieland unsuccessfully asked for her hand after returning to Biberach and finding his former love, namely, Sophie, already married. Cateau later moved to Augsburg, where she died improverished.
Himly, Karl Gustav (1772–1837): Ophthalmologist, professor of medicine. From 1790 studied at the Collegium Chirurgicum in his hometown of Braunschweig, from 1792 in Göttingen, where he finished his medical degree in 1794. From 1795 teacher and director at a hospital for the poor in Braunschweig, lecturing on pathology and surgery. In 1798 he married Ernestine Helene Friederike Louise, née Langrehr (after her death in 1810 he married Sophie Henriette Roose, widow of Theodor Georg Roose). From 1801 professor of medicine in Jena as the successor of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, though likely against Goethe’s wishes; from 1803 professor in Göttingen, where he also was the first in Germany to lecture on ophthalmology and edited (with J. A. Schmidt in Vienna) the first journal on ophthalmology, the Ophthalmologische Bibliothek. From 1805 director of the Academic Hospital in Göttingen. Also served in Prussian military hospitals on the Rhine. Despite his success and popularity as a teacher, he is suspected of having committed suicide by drowning in the Leine River in Göttingen. His son was also a professor in Göttingen. (Portrait: unknown artist; U.S. National Library of Medicine.)
Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich (1765–1814): Composer, pianist. From 1785 studied theology in Halle but was best known as a pianist. Became a military chaplain in Potsdam so he could perform for the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm II, who was so impressed that he financed Himmel’s musical studies in Dresden under J. G. Naumann (1787–92). After his oratorium Isaak was performed in Berlin in 1792, the king appointed him chamber composer and gave him leave to travel to Italy to study and perform. After returning in 1795 he became Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s successor as the royal orchestra director in Berlin. Is alleged to have engaged in various intrigues to maintain the favor of the royal family in spite of his questionable lifestyle (debts), something that also generated hostility toward him at the court. Generally considered a mediocre talent, though some of his works (operas, singspiels, Lieder, piano pieces, a few orchestral works) continued to be popular into the nineteenth century.
Himmelstein, Peter (dates unknown): Würzburg citizen, at one time a chamberlain with the suffragen bishop Andreas Joseph Fahrmann in Würzburg; also a former master sharpshooter. Succeeded the royal confectioner Bevern as head of the arrangements for balls and redoutes (masked balls) for the aristocracy in the facilities put aside and renovated for these by Johann Seufert around 1780 between 139 Sandergasse and Elefantengasse in Würzburg. Apart from balls, Himmelstein was also responsible for evening entertainment and refreshments on Tuesdays and Thursdays, at which the prince bishop himself sometimes participated. When Caroline and Schelling lived in Würzburg (1803–6), Himmelstein had a redoute facility in the Reurer Gasse nearer the Main River, where he arranged various types of balls and dancing and even dining. In 1825 Himmelstein converted the facilities into the inn Gasthaus zum Kronprinzen von Bayern.
Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von (1741–96): Studied theology in Königsberg from 1756, returning after spending time as a companion to a Russian officer (1760–62) to study law, finishing in 1765. From 1772 administrator in Königsberg, rising to the position of mayor and chief of police (1780) and city president, becoming quite wealthy. Best known for his novel Lebensläufe nach aufsteigender Linie (4 vols. 1778–81), a thinly disguised autobiography which among other things preserves a description of the Baltic German community of the time. An ironic, sometimes eccentric writer combining sentimentality with common sense, influenced by Laurence Sterne. Also wrote advocating the improvement of the status of women, Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber (1792). (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 327.)
Hirschmann, Anna Margaretha (20 January 1783–18 March 1829): A native of Mittelschlechtbach in Baden-Württemberg, later wife (from spring of 1803?) of Karl Christian Ludwig Paulus, brother of Karoline Paulus.
Hirt, Alois (Aloys) (1759–1837): Art historian, writer, archaeologist. After the death of a woman he loved as a youth, spent time in a monastery, then from 1778 studied philosophy in Nancy, France, then law and political science in Freiburg and Vienna (1779–82). From 1782 in Rome, where from 1785 he established himself as a guide (including for Goethe and the Duchess Anna Amalia) and worked as an antiquarian. After returning to Germany in 1796 became a Prussian councilor and member of the Academy of Science and Art in Berlin, developing plans for a museum to house the royal art collection. Visited Goethe and Schiller in 1797, the former of whom found in Hirt’s aesthetic views a counter to those of Friedrich Schlegel, though Goethe did recognize his inclination to lend objectivity to subjective premises. Participated in the founding of the Academy of Architecture, where he also taught history of architecture. From 1810 professor of archaeology at the newly founded university in Berlin.
Hockel (Hoquel), Pedro (ca. 1760–ca. 1788): Portuguese student of German lineage in Göttingen 1777–82. Therese Heyne speaks of visiting his aunt in Hannover, Catharina Constantia Elisabeth Alberti (1734–88), in August 1782. Hockel apparently rented a room in the Michaelis house and fell in love in 1780 with fourteen-year-old Charlotte Michaelis, who was promptly sent off to a boarding school in Gotha run by Sarah Elisabeth Schläger, though he pursued her even there. Hockel was apparently forced to leave Göttingen, leaving behind considerable debts and an illegitimate daughter. For more on Hockel in general and his affair with Lotte Michaelis specifically, see supplementary appendix 21.1 and supplementary appendix 29.1.
Hofer, Andreas (1767–20 February 1810): Tyrolean Innkeeper who led the insurrection against Bavarian and French rule. The same geopolitical developments that prompted Caroline and Schelling to leave Würzburg for Munich, namely, the Treaty of Pressburg, which put Würzburg under Austrian rule and Tyrol under Bavarian and French rule, also eventually led to the Tyrolean insurrection against “foreign” rule. The insurrection was sparked in part by the introduction of compulsory military service in the Bavarian army and by unwanted religious reform. Hofer became the primary folk hero associated with this ultimately unsuccessful insurrection. (Portrait from Wilhelm G. Becker, Andreas Hofer und der Freiheitskampf in Tyrol, 1809 [Leipzig 1841], plate following p. 126.)
Hoff, Carl Ernst Adolph von (1771–1837): A native of Gotha, where he attended the Gymnasium, and son of a long-time administrator at the ducal court there. Cousin of Caroline’s childhood friend Luise Stieler and her brother, Adolph Stieler. From 1786 studied law in Jena, from 1790 law and diplomatic studies in Göttingen, though also, under the influence of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natural sciences, especially mineralogy and geology. Returned to Gotha in 1791 and was appointed legation secretary in the chancery and archive, where he remained in various capacities for the next forty-five years, advancing to the position of a trusted administrator and diplomat in ducal service, in which capacity he represented Gotha at several conference during the Napoleonic period and following (e.g., in Erfurt in 1808). Ultimately became director of the high consistory and of the science and art collections in Gotha. Published extensively both in the political and in the natural sciences. Was married twice, though all six of his children with his first wife died before she herself passed away in 1813; his two children by his second wife (from 1813) survived. Von Hoff was close friends with Oberkonsistorialpräsident August von Studnitz, and was a cousin of Adolf Stieler (the cartographer who did the cartographic illustrations for a book von Hoff did on Germany) and thus also of his sister, Luise Gotter, née Stieler. Friedrich von Schlichtegroll, Nekrolog auf das Jahr 1797, 2:250, praises an outline biography of Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter by the legation secretary “Hof.” — Concerning the von Hoff family in Gotha, see Friedrich Jacobs, Personalien (Leipzig 1840) 571–90.
Hoff, Friederike von († 1832): Sister of Carl von Hoff, married a son of Caroline’s great-uncle Johann Arnold Wilhelm Reinbold. See Friedrich Jacobs, Personalien (Leipzig 1840), 584: “In the year 1832, he [Carl von Hoff] mourned the death of his eldest sister, Friederike, married name Reinbold, the mother of many beautiful children; she herself was extraordinarily beautiful and quite cultured in your youth.” Ibid., 585: “This town [Gotha] could adduce no more beautiful children than Carl and Friederike von Hoff.”
Hoffmann, Benjamin Gottlob (1748–1818): Founder of the Hamburg publishing company that later became Hoffmann und Campe; the firm was headed from 1823 by Julius Campe, nephew of Joachim Heinrich Campe. Hoffmann’s daughter, Elise Hoffmann, married the publisher August Campe and later published valuable biographies of Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Meyer and Johann Diederich Gries. (Portrait: Percy Ernst Schramm, Hamburg, Deutschland und die Welt: Leistung und Grenzen hanseatischen Bürgertums in der Zeit zwischen Napoleon I. und Bismarck; ein Kapitel deutscher Geschichte [München 1943].)
Hoffmann, Carl Christoph von (1735–1801): 1786–90 chancellor of the university in Halle, from 1786 also ennobled. From 1772 married to Therese Auguste, née von Dieskau, widowed Lüder, who after the death of her first husband inherited the estates Dieskau and Lochau. Following her death after but a year of marriage, Hoffmann inherited Dieskau but lost Lochau to his wife’s son from her first marriage. A year later Hoffmann married his first wife’s sister, Friederike Auguste. Erected the observatory for the university and also expanded the university botanical garden as well as, later, the gardens at Dieskau. Resigned the chancellorship in 1790 for health reasons. (Portrait with his second wife, Friederike Auguste, ca. 1780 by Anton Graff.)
Hoffmann, Elisabeth, née Ruperti (1766–1829): From 1785 wife of the Hamburg publisher Benjamin Gottlob Hoffmann. Mother of Elisabeth Campe, biographer of Johann Diederich Gries. (Portrait: Percy Ernst Schramm, Hamburg, Deutschland und die Welt: Leistung und Grenzen hanseatischen Bürgertums in der Zeit zwischen Napoleon I. und Bismarck; ein Kapitel deutscher Geschichte [München 1943].)
Hoffmann, Joseph (1764–1812): Painter. A native of Cologne, Hoffmann studied at the Academy of Art in Düsseldorf and then helped paint the ceiling murals in the Gross St. Martin Church in Cologne before traveling to Paris in 1797. Won several prizes in the contests established by Goethe, including in 1801 with the painting Achill unter den Töchtern des Lykomedes. At Goethe’s initiative he painted the ceiling mural in the audience hall of the Weimar castle.
Hogarth, William (1697–1764): British painter and engraver who developed a genre of sequential paintings and engravings called “modern moral subjects” that often tell a story with variously topical or erotic features but generally also comment on social and political vices and corruption, some quite coarse. Charles Dickwens remarked that he had never met “the miserable reality” of low-life London except in Hogarth, whence, similarly, Friedrich Heinrich Liebeskind’s reference in his description of the mob that assaulted the captured Mainz Clubbists outside Frankfurt.
Hohenheim, Franziska von (1748–1811): Eventual Duchess of Württemberg. Married off at sixteen to a wealthy baron. Became acquainted with Duke Karl Eugen von Württemberg in 1769, who brought the couple to his court in 1771, paid off the husband, and brought about a divorce in 1772 (papal annulment 1791), after which she became Karl Eugen’s mistress in Ludwigsburg and, after the death of his wife in 1780, his second wife in 1785. Exercised considerable influence over Karl Eugen, especially in matters of education; also engaged in botanical studies, but had a more difficult financial time after Karl Eugen’s death in 1793. (Portrait: ca. 1790 by Jakob Friedrich Weckherlin.)
Hohenlohe, Friedrich Ludwig Fürst zu (1746–1818): Prussian general, distinguished himself in the Revolutionary campaigns of 1792–93, became commanding officer of the Prussian army in 1795. Commanded the Prussian army at Jena but was defeated after assessing the battlefield conditions incorrectly; then received command of all the forces that had escaped the battles of Jena and Auerstedt. Found himself in an impossible situation in Berlin as the French forces advanced and had to abandon the town, thereafter being taken prisoner with 15,000 of his soldiers at Prenzlau. Afterward retired to private life.
Holberg, Ludvig von (1684–1754): Danish-Norwegian writer and playwright. Educated in Denmark and England, widely traveled in Europe, professor metaphysics and later of history in Copenhagen. Prolific writer of comedies, Peder Paars (1719), a parody of Virgil’s Aeneid, and twenty-six plays between 1722 and 1724, including Ulysses von Ithacia (1723), which Ludwig Tieck read aloud to the Romantics in Jena in 1799. The outstanding Scandinavian literary figure of the Enlightenment, claimed as the founder of the literatures of both Norway and Denmark.
Hölderlin, Friedrich (1770–1843): Seminary friend of both Schelling and Hegel in Tübingen, tutored the son of Charlotte von Kalb from late 1794 till mid-January 1795. From 1802 crippled by an otherwise unidentified mental illness, from 1806 under the care of a physician in Tübingen. Arguably the most sublime of German poets. Schelling and Caroline have various encounters with him beginning in 1803 (Portrait ca. 1792 by Franz Karl Hiemer.)
Hollmann, Samuel Christian (1696–1787): Philosopher, physicist, studied in Königsberg, Wittenberg, Jena, and Greifswald, becoming an adjunct instructor in Wittenberg in 1724, having begun to acquaint himself with the philosophy of Christian Wolff. After trouble with censorship, became a full professor in Wittenberg in 1725, from 1734 professor for logic and metaphysics in Göttingen, where he cofounded the Göttingen Academy of Science and, astonishingly, lectured until he was 88 years old.
Holscher, Johann Konrad Achat(z) (1755–25 September 1840): From 1790 court chaplain in Hannover, from 1794 superintenent in Ronnenberg in the district of Calenberg, previously in Münder in the same district, from 1805 in the Neustadt area of Hannover, then consistory counselor and general superintendent in the duchies of Hoya and Diepholz. Author of various theological, pedagogical, and biographiscal writings.
Homer (dates unknown; possibly sometime between Trojan War and Hesiod): The alleged author of the epics The Illiad and The Odyssey, but an author about whom even during antiquity nothing certain was known (seven cities in antiquities claimed to be his birthplace; even the number of works he allegedly authored is disputed). These two works, whether authored singly or corporately, are generally viewed as constituting the beginning of Western literature and were of enormous interest esp. at universities in Germany during Caroline’s lifetime. The Halle philologist Friedrich August Wolf came to understand Homer’s works as a collection of individual pieces of differing provenance transmitted down and collected together into a single corpus, a view that exercised enormous influence during this period (Wilhelm Schlegel was considering lecturing on Homer when he moved to Jena with Caroline in the summer of 1796). (Stylized period portrait: frontispiece to the Österreichischer Taschenkalender für das Jahr 1805.)
Hommel, Rudolf (Rudolph) (1767–1817) : Jurist, native of Leipzig, son of Dr. Carl Ferdinand Hommel (1722–81), professor of law in Leipzig. Hommel received his law doctorate in 1791 in Leipzig, from 1794 served as city senator, from 1804 as municipal judge; from 1805 also court attorney in Dresden. (Biographical information: Christoph Johann Gottfried Haymann, Dresdens theils neuerlich verstorbne, theils ietzt lebende Schriftsteller und Künstler: wissenschaftlich classificirt, nebst einem dreyfachen Register [Dresden, 1809], 78.)
Hoppenstedt, August Ludwig (1763–1830) and from 1799 his wife (and former pupil), Louise Sophie, née Klockenbring (1780–1804), the latter the daughter of Sophia Rudolphina, née Alemann (one of Therese Heyne’s acquaintances in Hannover), and F. A. Klockenbring. August Ludwig Hoppenstedt was the brother of Carl Wilhelm Hoppenstedt. From 1782, he studied theology and pedagogy in Göttingen, becoming a tutor in the house of Pastor Koppe, whom he then also followed to Gotha in 1785 and later to Hannover. From 1789 inspector of teachers’ seminar in Hannover, from 1792 court chaplain at the castle church there, from 1796 superintendent in Stolzenau an der Weser in the duchy Hoya, from 1805 general superintendent in Harburg, where he dealt adroitly with the French during the occupation, from 1815 in Celle. Later married to Johanne, née Sarnighausen (1786–1830). Composer of Lieder für Volksschulen, which from the turn of the century long remained popular in all Hannoverian Volksschulen. Caroline was never particularly fond of him (see letter 248).
Hoppenstedt, Karl (Carl) Wilhelm (1770–1826): Studied first theology, then law in Göttingen, earning his doctorate. Met the Böhmer family during the festivities for the fiftieth anniversary of the university in 1787, where he also attended the weekly assemblies Böhmer gave. From 1788 tutor in the house of Johann Benjamin Koppe in Gotha, who died soon thereafter, however, after which Hoppenstedt tutored the son of privy Cabinetsrath Georg Heinrich Nieper in Hannover, returning with that son to Göttingen in 1794, lodging then in the Böhmer house, studying theology, and courting Luise Michaelis, who rejected him in favor of Christian Rudolf Wilhelm Wiedemann. From 1796 private lecturer in the law school in Göttingen, from 1797 assessor. At Easter 1798 he married Philippine Böhmer. Later married to Friederike Jäger (1786–1833). From 1803 government administrator in Gotha, from 1817 privy Justizrath in Hannover, from 1822 senior administrator of state there.
Hoppenstedt, Louise Sophie, née Klockenbring (1780–1804): Daughter of Sophia Rudolphina, née Alemann (1760–after 1801; one of Therese Heyne’s childhood friends in Hannover), and Friedrich Arnold Klockenbring (1742–95), chancellery secretary in Hannover. From 1799 married to August Ludwig Hoppenstedt. Died in childbirth.
Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65–8 BCE): Roman writer best known for his satires, odes, verse epistles, epodes, and a treatise on the poetic arts. During Caroline’s lifetime, virtually every educated German had been immersed in Horace’s works at one time or another during schooling (including very early schooling), the result being that most could cite or otherwise adduce passages from his works with sometimes alarming facility and accuracy, and could, moreover, be assured that listeners with a comparable educational background would catch the reference.
Horn, Ernst H. (1774–1848): Physician, originally from Braunschweig, attained his doctorate in Göttingen in 1797. From 1798 military physician in Braunschweig, from 1800 professor of military medicine there, from 1804 professor of medicine in Wittenberg, though quickly transferred to Erlangen the same year. From 1806 professor of surgery at the military academy in Berlin (till 1818 also deputy physician at the Charité Hospital there). 1813–14 general physician in military hospitals between the Elbe and Oder rivers. From 1821 professor at the university in Berlin. — Once he abandoned the theories of John Brown and Brunonianism (Brownianism), he became one of those significant physicians during the early nineteenth century who drew eclectically from various theories and esp. from practical experience. Contributed esp. to the theory and practice of psychiatry. (Portrait: Wissenschaftliche Sammlungen an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Porträtsammlung Berliner Hochschullehrer; Historische Sammlungen der Universitäts-Bibliothek.)
Hoven, August Wilhelm von (Gustel) (1790–30 September 1825): Son of Friedrich Wilhelm and Henriette von Hoven. Studied in Erlangen and Altdorf before eventually becoming a royal Bavarian district and municipal court recorder in Nürnberg. His father remarks that during his university studies, August drifted away from being an industrious and morally upright student but was too far gone by the time he, the father, found out about it from friends, and that August eventually died at thirty-five years of age of this unnamed malady, just a year before his mother (Friedrich Wilhelm von Hoven, Biographie Von ihm selbst geschrieben und wenige Tage vor seinem Tode noch beendiget, ed. Dr. Johann Merkel [Nürnberg 1840], 343–44). The Allgemeines Intelligenz-Blatt der Stadt Nürnberg (1825) 119 (Monday, 10 October 1825), 1258, lists the cause of death as consumption. In the Allgemeines Intelligenz-Blatt der Stadt Nürnberg (1825) 136 (Friday, 18 November 1825), 1426, the town of Nürnberg published an announcement, dated 9 November 1825, that the personal effects of August von Hoven, “consisting of linens, clothes, furniture, and books,” would be auctioned on Monday, 28 November 1825 between 9:00 and 12:00, and that anyone having a claim of debt, etc., to levy against his estate would have until 12 January 1826 to do so formally.
Hoven, Friedrich Wilhelm von (1759–1838): Physician, writer, from 1786 husband of Henriette, née Bischoff. From 1771 Hoven attended the Stuttgart Military Academy, studying medicine there 1775–80 and becoming intimate friends with his fellow student Friedrich Schiller, who inspired him to publish poetry. After graduation, he practiced medicine and worked as a court physician in Ludwigsburg. From 1803 professor of medicine in Würzburg, from 1805 also director of the Julius Hospital there, from 1806 in Ansbach, later director of all hospitals in Nuremberg. Participated in the dispute concerning John Brown’s system of medicine, initially supporting this system, then from 1807 taking a more skeptical postion. Best known, however, for his skills as a practicing physician. (Portrait: Nürnberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Graphische Sammlung [Paul Wolfgang Merkel’sche Familienstiftung], Inventar-Nr. MP 11522a, Kapsel-Nr. 20H4.)
Hoven, Christiane Henriette Beate von, née Bischoff (1770–7 December 1827): Daughter of a court apothecary in Ludwigsburg, from 1786 wife of Friedrich Wilhelm von Hoven. Caroline allegedly gave her some variation of the nickname “Swabian housemaid,” “maidservant,” or “kitchen maid” in Würzburg.
Huber, Ludwig Ferdinand (14 September 1764–24 December 1804): Writer, journalist. As a young man, he developed an interest in English literature and Shakespeare and the early works of Schiller. While studying at the university in Leipzig, he became acquainted with Christian Gottfried Körner and began an affair with Dora Stock, sister of the latter’s fiancée. The four of them wrote a now famous letter to Schiller in 1784 prompting the latter to move from Mannheim to Leipzig. From 1788 secretary to the electoral Saxon envoy in Mainz; Huber was the sole Saxon representative from 1790 until the Mainz court fled the advancing French army in 1792. Huber published his play Das heimliche Gericht (2nd ed. 1795) in Schiller’s Thalia in 1788, and although the play is largely forgotten today, it was modestly popular at the time because of its resemblance to Schiller’s plays. The friendships with Schiller and Körner cooled considerably when Huber broke off his engagement to Dora Stock. When the Mainz court fled the advancing French army, Huber left as well before returning out of concern for Georg Forster’s family even after the French had in the meantime occupied Mainz (a step he had difficulty explaining to the Dresden court). After asking in Dresden and Leipzig to be dismissed, he returned and fled from Mainz to Strasbourg—having come under suspicion of conspiracy himself—with Therese Forster and her children, eventually settling in Switzerland, where he lived as a translator and editor, marrying Therese in 1794 after Forster’s death. They lived in Bôle, Switzerland till 1798, then in Tübingen, Stuttgart, and Ulm (from 1803, though the family stayed in Stuttgart). In the fall of 1803 he was appointed to oversee education in the newly formed province of Swabia but died on Christmas Eve night 1804. (Portrait: anonymous miniature ca. 1800.)
Huber, Michael (27 September 1727–15 April 1804): Father of Ludwig Ferdinand Huber. Although a native of Bavaria, Huber lived in Paris from ca. 1750 as a writer and, later, language teacher and journalist. Translated works from German literature into French, including an anthology in 1766 with an introductory outline history of German literature that made him one of the precursors of German literary historiography and one of the first to introduce German literature to the French. Moved to Leipzig in 1766, where he taught languages and continued to translate and where his house became an intellectual and cultural meeting place. Huber had a reputation as an art connoisseur, publishing catalogs on his own collection of copper engravings in 1787 and on other collections as well; of particular importance is his 9-volume handbook for collectors of copper engravings (1796–1804), which was published in part posthumously.
Huber, Viktor Aimé (10 March 1800 Stuttgart–19 July 1869): Son of Therese and L. F. Huber. After studying medicine eventually became a respected professor of history and literary history at various universities, including Berlin, though in 1851 he resigned and devoted his efforts to social reform, including the introduction of unions and the integration of the working class into bourgeois society.
Hübsch, Johann Christian Gotthelf (1731–26 March 1811): Son of Johann Georg Gotthelf Hübsch, professor of mathematics in Schulpforte, and Johanna Sophie Walter. Brother of Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe (Mother) Schlegel, née Hübsch, and thereby uncle of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel. Married to Friederike Rebekka, née Schlegel (16 March 1736–28 January 1785), who was the daughter of Johann Friedrich Schlegel and Maria Ulrike Rebekka Schlegel, and thereby sister of, among others, Johann Adolf Schlegel (father of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel) and Johann Elias Schlegel (uncle of Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel). Lived in Kösen, just west of Schulpforte.
Huch, Ricarda (1864–1947): Prolific author of verse, plays, novels, historical novels, history, and biography. Because German universities were still not open to women at the time, she attended the university in Zürich, receiving her doctorate in 1891. Her book on the Romantics, published in final form as Die Romantik, 2 vols. (1908; earlier 1899, 1902), demonstrates her considerable talent at empathetic reconstruction. (Portrait: unknown photographer.)
Hufeland, Christoph Wilhelm (1762–1836): Caroline’s personal physician in Jena. His father was physician-in-waiting to the Grand Duchess of Weimar. Studied medicine in Jena and Göttingen 1780–83, receiving his doctorate under Georg Christoph Lichtenberg with a piece on the effects of electric stimulation on apparently dead animals. In 1787 he married Juliana, née Amelung (1771–1845), though they divorced in 1807/8; in 1815 he married Helene, née Troschel (1777–1862). Till 1793 general practictioner in Weimar, thereafter also physician-in-waiting in Weimar, attending not only the duke, but also Goethe, Schiller, Christoph Martin Wieland, and Johann Gottfried Herder. From 1793 professor of medicine in Jena. From 1795 published the Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarznehkunst (from 1808 Journal für practische Heilkunde). Generally opposed the doctrines of John Brown, though adopted those parts he thought useful. Published his Jena lectures on dietary considerations in 1796 as Makrobiotik oder Die Kunst das menscliche Leben zu verlängern (on the art of “prolonging human life”), an immensely popular book (also for the laity) that went into numerous editions and was translated into virtually all the European languages (Eng. trans. The Art of Prolonging Life, trans. Albert E. Foote [London 1797]). One of the the most popular writers on medicine in the nineteenth century. From 1801 at the Prussian court in Berlin with the title of Geheimrath and, among other things, a senior position at the Charité Hospital. Also attended the poor and introduced the Jenner cowpox vaccinations there (establishment of an inoculation center in Berlin in 1802 at his initiative). Accompanied the royal familiy to Königsberg and Memel in 1806 after the Battle of Jena. From 1809 back in Berlin. First dean of the medical school at the newly established Berlin university in 1810. (Portrait: Wissenschaftliche Sammlungen an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Sammlungsobjekte Kabinette des Wissens, Bilddokumente, Detailfotografie der Reproduktion eines Gemäldes, Porträt, Christoph Hufeland.)
Hufeland, Friedrich (18 July 1774–21 April 1839): Physician, brother of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland. Native of Weimar, studied medicine and surgery in Jena, attaining his doctorate in both fields on 17 July 1797, after which he began practicing in Weimar. Accompanied a count as private physician to France in 1803–4, then another count in Silesia. Returned to Weimar in 1806, from 22 August 1806 as ducal court physician. From 1810 court and city physician as well as military physician. From 1811 (15 September 1811 as Hofrath, after his qualifying Habilitation, began lecturing in Jena, from 1812 as special professor before transferring to Berlin soon thereafter as a full professor of pathology and semiotics at the military hospital. From 1814 special professor, from 1826 full professor at the university in Berlin, from 1831 as dean of the medical school. From 1804 afflicted on several occasions by severe illnesses, and described in his obituary as having a “weak physical constitution,” including eye problems and, during his final years, a “general weakness of the nervous system.” Became an early follower of Mesmerism, also publishing in the field, identifying electricity, Galvanism, and magnetism as modifications of the same fundamental power and also discussing animal magnetism in connection with Galvanic electricity. (Neuer nekrolog der Deutschen 17 , no. 1, 404–6.) He seems to have been Caroline’s original travel companion for her Berlin trip, though not the companion with whom she eventually actually traveled.
Hufeland, Gottlieb (1760–1817): Political economist, law professor in Jena. Married Konradine Luise Wilhelmine, née Wiedemann, a sister of Christian Rudolf Wilhelm Wiedemann, Luise Michaelis’s husband. Their children were Anna Viktoria Rosalie Mathilde, Therese (1796 [95?]–1833), who married the son of Rosine Niethammer by her previous marriage (Döderlein), and Siegmund (Adolph). A native of Danzig, he studied law and history from 1780 in Leipzig, from 1783 in Göttingen, from 1784 in Jena, where in 1785 he received doctorates in both philosophy and law and in 1786 began lecturing in law. From 1788 special professor of law, from 1790 full professor, from 1793 member of the city legal advisory council. (His daughter, Therese [1796–1833], was the first wife of Ludwig Döderlein [1791–1863], whose mother, Eleonore, had married Immanuel Niethammer in her second marriage, whence Niethammer came into possession through marriage of the house at Leutragasse 5, where Hufeland and his wife seem to have lived opposite Caroline and Wilhelm across the courtyard in the rear of the edifice.) From 1803 professor of pandects in Würzburg. In 1806, when the principality of Würzburg was severed from Bavaria, to which it had been assigned by the Reich Deputation Decree of 1803, and given to the grand duchy of Toscana, Hufeland transferred to Landshut to teach. In 1808 the city of Danzig elected him senate president and mayor with a salary of 1000 Louis d’or. His successor in Landshut was Friedrich Carl von Savigny. Pressure from the Franco-Russian war prompted him to resign his position in Danzig in 1812 and return to Landshut, though bitter contract problems there prompted him to move to Halle in 1816. (Portrait: 1798, by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein; Bildarchiv Foto Marburg.)
Hufeland, Juliana, née Amelung (1771–1845): Originally, from Pfüngstadt; from 1787 wife of the physician Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland. They divorced in 1807/8, and she later married Ernst Bischoff (1781–1861), professor of pharmacology in Bonn.
Hufeland, Carl Friedrich Victor (10 October 1776–10 March 1853): From 1803 court attorney in Weimar, from 1805 chamber counselor, from 1811 also territorial attorney, from 1838 vice president and from 1842 president of the provincial council. Attorney in Weimar who represented Caroline in her divorce from Wilhelm Schlegel as well as Sophie Mereau in her divorce from Friedrich Karl Ernst Mereau in 1801. Nephew of Christian Gottlob Voigt and son of the Weimar court physician Christian Gottlieb Hufeland (†1781), Weimar municipal physician, the latter not to be confused with the physician Christoph W. Hufeland, Karl Friedrich Victor Hufeland’s uncle, who was one of Caroline’s physicians before moving to Berlin, where he attended the king and queen (Fuhrmans 2:488fn2).
Hufeland, Konradine Luise Wilhelmine, née Wiedemann (22 September 1776–18 April 1823): Sister of Sophie and Christian Rudolf Wilhelm Wiedemann in Braunschweig, hence sister-in-law of Luise Michaelis, who married Wiedemann in 1796; from 1793 wife of Gottlieb Hufeland. Her children were Mathilde, Therese, and Siegmund Adolph (uncertain middle/first names; listed as a pupil in the Gymnasium in Munich in 1813 and as having been born in Jena and as the son of a Justizrath and professor). (Portrait: 1798, by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein; Bildarchiv Foto Marburg.)
Hufeland, Siegmund (Adolph) (born in Jena ca. June or July 1798; otherwise dates unknown): Son of Gottlieb and Konradine Luise Wilhelmine Hufeland. Studied at the Gymnasium in Munich 1813–15 (attested for those years). Sequence of given names is uncertain. Apparently Caroline and Wilhelm Schlegel were his godparents in Jena.
Hufeland, Therese (1796–1833): Daughter of Gottlieb and Konradine Luise Hufeland in Jena; from 1816 first wife of Johann Ludwig Christoph Wilhelm Döderlein (1791–1863), son of Johann Christoph Döderlein (1746–92), professor of theology in Jena, and Eleonore, née Eckard (1732–1800), whose second husband was Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer. On 15, 16, 17 August 1858, Döderlein returned from Erlangen (where he was professor of philology) to Jena to attend the three-hundred-year jubilee of the university, on one afternoon visiting the Orthopedic-Rehabilitation Center in Jena, which since 1844 had been located in the house in which Döderlein was born, namely, Leutragasse 5.
Hufnagel, Wilhelm Friedrich (1754–1830): Rationalist educator, professor of philosophy and theology and for at time also prorector at the university in Erlangen and pastor at the university church; from September 1791 head of the preachers’ seminary in Frankfurt am Main.
Hügel, Johann Aloys Joseph von (1754–1825): Austrian diplomat. Advanced quickly from justice official to governmental chancellor in the service of the electorate of Trier. In 1790 and 1792 he participated in the election of the emperor. From 1793 in Austrian service, gaining considerable influence from 1802 as an Austrian and imperial representative at the Extraordinary Reich Deputation. From 1806 transfer commissar in Würzburg and Mergentheim after the political change, then consultant in Vienna. From 1810 envoy in Frankfurt and at the courts of Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Nassau, and from 1813, after the dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine, civil governor of Frankfurt.
Huger, Francis Kinloch (1773–1855): A native of Charleston, South Carolina, whose family had hosted Lafayette when the latter landed in South Carolina in 1777. When he was eight years old, Huger was sent to school in England, returning briefly to South Carolina in 1791. Engaged as a field surgeon with the English army in Flanders under the Duke of York, going thence to study medicine in Vienna, where Erich Justus Bollmann enlisted his help in an attempt to free Lafayette from prison in Olmütz. Imprisoned for eight months before returning to America to complete his medical education at the University of Pennsylvania (1797). From 1798 a captain in the United States Army, from 1812 a colonel, serving in the war against England till 1815. (Portrait: 1825, by Charles Fraser; The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1938; 38.165.33.)
Hügel, Johann Aloys Joseph von (1754–1825): Austrian diplomat, initially in electoral Trier service, which he left in 1793, having already applied for a position as an envoy at the imperial diet, which he received based not least on his efficacious service at the emperor elections in 1790 and 1792 (Caroline speaks about the latter in her letters from Mainz). Later in an administrative position when Ferdinand von Tuscany received Würzburg in 1806 (an event contributing to Schelling and Caroline’s decision to leave Würzburg). In Vienna he authored opinions on imperial abdication, which he loathed to see occur, and in general Hügel never got over the end of the old empire and suffered from depression later in life. Responsible for moving several valuable envoy archives to Vienna, as well as the imperial insignia, which were entrusted to him in 1796 and which he took to Vienna in 1800 and refused to return to Nürnberg in 1806.
Hugo, Gustav (1764): From 1782–85 student, from 1788 private lecturer in Göttingen; possibly the author of a sonnet on the death of Philippine Hoppenstedt, née Böhmer, mentioned by Luise Wiedemann in her memoirs.
Hülsen, August Ludwig (1765–1809): Philosopher, writer. Studied philosophy and theology in Halle, where Friedrich August Wolf introduced him to Homer. Thereafter private tutor, moving then to Kiel, where he became acquainted with the writings of Kant and Karl Leonhard Reinhold. After Fichte came to Jena (1794), Hülsen moved there as well (1795), remaining till 1797 as an enthusiastic adherent of Fichte’s philosophy and becoming a member of the Society of Free Men. A contributor to Athenaeum (1799 and 1800), he had little skill as a writer and was difficult to comprehend; his rather soft disposition was characterized by piety toward nature, and yet could be morally somewhat brittle. For a time, both Friedrich Schlegel, who made his personal acquaintance in November 1798, and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) were effusive in their praise for him. He, however, rejected Lucinde. As a person with an inclination for the idyllic, he journeyed to Switzerland (1796–98; see “Naturbetrachtungen auf einer Reise durch die Schweiz,” Athenaeum  34–57, a reflective rather than narrative or descriptive piece). On 3 March 1799, he married Leopoldine Christiane Dorothea, née von Posern, widow of a pastor in the village of Lentzke; they settled in Lentzke, where his former pupil Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué allowed him to use his house and garden. In 1797 he had established a school for boys in the spirit of a more natural understanding of pedagogy. The death of his wife soon thereafter (she died on 8 October 1800 of a liver ailment and consumption) prompted him to abandon the project. Heartbroken and desperate, Hülsen initially found support from Fichte and Wilhelm Schlegel before several friends bought him a small estate in Schleswig. From June 1806 married to Sophie Christine Friederica, née von Wibel (†1808); from 31 March 1809 married to Maria Elisabeth Wilhelmine, née Thormälen, with whom he moved to Stechow near Rathenow, east of Berlin. Hülsen died in September 1809, barely two months after their daughter was born. His Prüfung der von der Akademie der wissenschaften zu Berlin aufgestellten Preisaufgabe (1796) developed the notion of an understanding of history in which an unfolding of self-positing reason might be discerned (anticipating Hegel). His writings attest a movement toward a religious-ethical understanding of nature more characteristic of the Romantics than of Fichte, by whom Hülsen was initially more influenced. — For more on him, see in general Rudolf Haym, Die romantische Schule 444–56; and Karl Justus Obenauer, August Ludwig Hülsen; seine Schriften und seine Beziehungen zur Romantik (Erlangen 1910).
Hülsen, Leopoldine Christiane Dorothea, née von Posern (1775–8 October 1800): widow of a pastor in the village of Lentzke, from autumn 1798 engaged and from 3 March 1799 married to August Ludwig Hülsen. Her death from liver problems and consumption on 8 October 1800 prompted Hülsen to abandon his boarding-school project.
Humboldt, Alexander von (1769–1859): Naturalist, mineralogist, explorer, writer. Younger brother of Wilhelm von Humboldt. Studied in Frankfurt an der Oder and Göttingen (from April 1789) and at the mining academy in Freiberg (1791–92). Traveled through France, the Low Counties, and England with Georg Forster in 1791. Acquainted with Schiller and Goethe. After exploring Spain with the French botanist Bonplan[d], carried out a five-year scientific expedition to Mexico, Cuba, and South America. Lived in Paris 1804–27, thereafter in Berlin, later participating in an expedition to southern Russia and Siberia (1829). Published prolifically on all his findings during these expeditions. Profoundly influenced by the German classical tradition as represented by Schiller and Goethe.
Humboldt, Caroline (Li) Friederike von, née von Dacheröden (1766–1829): Daughter of the Prussian administrator in Minden, Karl Friedrich von Dacheröden, who had retired to his estate near Erfurt and later also had a house in Erfurt when in 1791 she married Wilhelm von Humboldt, whom she accompanied on trips to Great Britain, France, Italy, and Switzerland. Published translations. Her posthumously published correspondence included Rahel and Karl August von Varnhagen and Rudolf Haym.
Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767–1835): Statesman, diplomat, linguist, educational reformer (brother of Alexander von Humboldt). Studied at Frankfurt an der Oder and Göttingen (the latter 1788/89, studying law and political science, though also philology under Christian Gottlob Heyne), became friends with Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, Goethe, and Schiller. 1794–96 in Jena, 1797–99 in Paris, from 1802 in Berlin. After working in a legal capacity in Berlin, left Prussian service and traveled to Paris, Spain, and Rome (the latter till 1808). From 1809 worked in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior and the Prussian Academy, also functioning as the director of culture and education. Enacted numerous educational reforms in secondary schools and was instrumental in the founding of the university in Berlin. In 1810–15 Prussian ambassador in Vienna, from 1817 ambassador in London, then in a ministerial position in Berlin, resigning in 1819 because of the repressive Carlsbad Decrees. Also known as a pioneering linguist, advocating an understanding of language as a rule-governed system. (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 325.)
Hummel, Johann Erdmann (1769–1852): Painter, etcher. From 1781 studied at the Academy of Formative Arts in Cassel, from 1792 in Rome, where after initially being under the influence of classicism he applied himself to the art of Romantic veduta painting (a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista, a genre that originated in Flanders). From 1800 in Berlin, where he produced costume drawings for the Royal Theater (1803) and a set of etchings on Luther’s life (1806). From 1809 taught architecture, perspective, and optics at the Berlin Academy of the Formative Arts. Known for his genre scenes in the Biedermeyer style and the incorporation of odd effects in perspective by the use of light and reflection (whence the nickname “Perspective Hummel”).
Huschke, Wilhelm Ernst Christian (1760–1828): Studied medicine in Jena, from 1788 physician in Weimar, attended Anna Amalia and Karl August, though also Wieland, Goethe, and Herder. Attended Schiller on the latter’s deathbed, whom he also autopsied. Cecile Gotter stayed with his family during at least part of her time in Weimar during which she was pursuing artistic training.
Hutchinson, John Hely (1757–1832): British soldier and politician. Aide-de-camp of Sir Ralph Abercromby during the Netherlands campaign of 1793; like Abercromby, also participated in the second expedition to the Netherlands in 1799, and was then second-in-command during the 1801 expedition to Egypt under Abercromby, after whose death in battle Hutchinson took command.
Huxham, John (1692–1728): English physician from Devon, from 1717 practiced in Plymouth and eventually became a member of the Royal Society. In 1739 published a study on the relation between epidemic diseases and the weather. 1728–48 he kept a record of epidemic diseases, publishing them in two volumes. One of the first physicians in England to identify and classify influenza, but most famous for his treatise on fevers (1750), in which he distinguished between “nervous fever,” on the one hand, and “putrid” fever (also “malignant,” “pestilential”), on the other, the latter caused by contagion, the former not. (Portrait: in Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Medical Portrait Gallery vol. 2 [London 1838], s.v. John Huxham, unpaginated.)