Index of Persons F


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F

Faber, Christof Balthasar (born 1751): Bamberg Hofrath; after his first wife, Maria Theresia Josefa Strobel, died in on 1 February 1800, he married Barbara Sauerbieer in January 1803. Although Caroline negotiated with him concerning renting an apartment in his home at what is today Nonnenbrücke 1 in Bamberg (the building is still extant), his father, Ferdinand Ignatz Faber, seems to have had some rather eccentric objections, and the lease never materialized.

Faber, Ferdinand Ignatz (1719–1805): Bamberg Geheimrath, royal secretary, and legal counselor. From 1744 married to Sabina Therese Baz. Owned the building at what is today Nonnenbrücke 1 in Bamberg, in which Caroline tried to rent and apartment for herself, Auguste, and Schelling. His somewhat eccentric objections prevented the lease from coming about.

Faber, Mademoiselle (dates unknown): Apparently a resident in the front part of the house at Leutragasse 5 in Jena while Caroline and Wilhelm were living there, though she is mentioned in letters only during their absence in late 1800 and early 1801. Nothing more about her identity has been established.

Falck, Nikolaus (1784–1850): Legal scholar, historian, and politician, friend of Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann. Studied in Kiel, from 1814 professor of law there.

JD FalkFalk, Johann Daniel (1768–1826): Social worker, writer. Originally trained to be a wig maker, but from 1791 studied theology and then philology in Halle. Moved to Weimar in 1797 and became acquainted with Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, and Christoph Martin Wieland and published the Taschenbuch für Freunde des Scherzes und der Satire (1797–1803). Founded the Johanneum orphanage in Weimar in 1813. Writings include satires, plays (Prometheus in 1803, Amphitryon in 1804), an autobiography (1805), and later memoirs concerning Goethe (1832). Established the Society of Friends in Need and also contributed financially and materially (e.g., seed) to the needy. Wrote the first verse of the famous Christmas carol O du fröhliche. (Portrait ca. 1800 by anonymous artist; Gleimhaus Halberstadt.)

KF FaschFasch, Karl Friedrich Christian (1736–1800): Musical conductor, composer. Came to the court of King Friedrich II in Berlin in 1756 as a musician and from 1774–76 directed the royal opera. Founded the Berlin Vocal Academy in 1790, which after his death was headed by his student Carl Friedrich Zelter. For the text of Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s published appreciation of Fasch in 1797, see Friedrich Schlegel’s letter to Auguste Böhmer in mid-November 1797 (letter 191b), note 7. (Portrait: Anton Graff.)

Fauche (Fauche-Borel), Louis (1763–1814) (and wife, née von Schwicheldt[?]): Publisher and bookseller in Hamburg and Braunschweig; initially a bookseller for the Prussian king in Neuchâtel when the French Revolution broke out (Neuchâtel then being Prussian). Apprenticed in Hamburg for two years beginning in 1782, where he was also acquainted with Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock. After an initial enthusiasm for the revolution, he turned royalist, and especially during the reign of Napoleon worked behind the scenes to help reestablish the monarchy. In 1788 opened a French bookstore in Braunschweig, which acquired importance during the Revolution insofar as the Duke of Braunschweig had taken in a large number of emigrés. Founded the Society of Literature and Typography in Braunschweig in 1797 with Louis Dubois de Maisonfort, which published a number of counter-revolutionary pieces.

Fauche, Madam, née von Schwigel or Schwicheldt (dates unknown): Presumably the wife of Louis Fauche-Borel; Luise Michaelis was acquainted with her in Hamburg and also traveled to Celle with her in 1793 (see Luise’s memoirs, note 53). Luise describes her as “very charming.”

GKI von FechenbachFechenbach, Georg Karl Ignaz von (1749–1808): From 1795 the last prince bishop of Würzburg as successor to Franz Ludwig von Erthal, the date from which, because he was not confirmed by the Bamberg cathedral chapter, the prince bishoprics of Bamberg and Würzburg were separated. On 26 March 1800, however, that same chapter elected him coadjutor bishop (successor-in-waiting) to the prince bishop of Bamberg, his aged uncle Christoph Franz von Buseck; it was this ceremony that Caroline and Auguste witnessed in Bamberg (Fechenbach assumed became prince bishop if Bamberg in 1805 when Buseck died). Once both Würzburg and Bamberg passed to Bavarian control in 1803, however, he lost temporal power. (Portrait: Tobias-Bild Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen)

JGH FederFeder, Johann Georg Heinrich (1740–1821): Philosopher, librarian. From 1767 professor in Göttingen, where he also published the Göttinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, functioning later also as prorector of the university. His opposition to Kant during the following years hurt his reputation as a philosopher, and he left Göttingen in 1797 for a position in Hannover as director of the Georgianum, the newly established upper-level school, and from 1802 also as head of the royal library there. After his first wife, Sophie, née Häublein died in 1772, in 1773 Feder married Margarethe Dorothea Möller (1750–1805), widow of the deceased (1772) Göttingen professor of theology Henning Valentin Möller († 1772), and daughter of Philipp Best, privy secretary in Hannover and London. (Portrait: Johann Heinrich Tischbein der Jüngere 1772; Das Gleimhaus, Halberstadt. Foto: Ulrich Schrader.)

Feder, Michael (25 May 1754–6 July 1824): Attended the Würzburg seminary, becoming a priest in 1777 and spending several years in pastoral care. From 1785 chaplain in the Würzburg Julius Hospital and professor extraordinarius of oriental languages, later or moral and pastoral theology, at the university. From 7 November 1791 university. Although he requested permission to resign in 1799 and return to pastoral work, he received a salary increase instead, so remained, including after secularization. He resigned his professorship in 1805 and librarianship in 1811. Feder was the head librarian at the university when Schelling and Caroline lived in their apartment directly over the library.

Feder, Margarethe Dorothea, née Best (1750–1805): Daughter of Wilhelm Philipp Best, widow of the Göttingen theology professor Henning Valentin Möller († 1772), mother of Ludwig Möer (Caroline spells it “Müller), from 1773 second wife of Johann Georg Heinrich Feder.

Fénelon, François de (1651–1715): French clergyman and writer, eventually Archbishop of Cambrai. Famous as the author of the didactic novel The Adventures of Telemachus (1699).

Ferdinand_TuscanyFerdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (6 May 1769–18 June 1824): Son of Leopold, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, whom he succeeded as Grand Duke of Tuscany when the latter was elected emperor (as Leopold II) in 1790. In 1792 the first European sovereign to sign an accord of formal acknowledgement with France after the commencement of the Revolution. Through the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, Ferdinand lost his principality but received from Napoleon as compensation the Duchy and Electorate of Salzburg and made a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, both on 26 December 1802, a role which expired, however, with the Empire’s dissolution in 1806. But on 25 December 1805, Ferdinand had to give up Salzburg as well, which by the Treaty of Pressburg was annexed by his older brother, Emperor Francis II. Ferdinand in his own turn, however, was made Duke of Würzburg, a new state created for him from the old Bishopric of Würzburg, remaining a prince elector; he entered the city to great acclamation on 1 May 1806 (Caroline describes the event; Ferdinand, incidentally, bought her tea table at her apartment auction on 16 May 1806, and his cook Schelling’s writing desk). With the dissolution of the Empire in 1806 he took the new title of Grand Duke of Würzburg. It was this overall course of events led both to Schelling’s appointment in Würzburg in 1803 and then also to his decision to leave in 1806. (Portrait: frontispiece to Anton Chroust, Das Grossherzogtum Würzburg (1806–1814): ein Vortag [Würzburg 1913].)

Féronce von Rotenkreutz, Jean Baptiste (1723–99 Braunschweig): Statesman, minister in Braunschweig. After studying in Jena, Halle, and Göttingen, and taking an educational tour through France and the Netherlands, Féronce became legation secretary at the Saxon court and then in 1748 entered similar service in Braunschweig, where from 1761 he served as a privy legation councilor and then as finance minister, in the latter position greatly contributing to extracting the duchy from financial troubles. In 1776 he sold Braunschweig subjects to England as mercenaries and in 1788 to the Netherlands.

Fernow, Karl Ludwig (1763–1808 Weimar): Art historian, librarian. After apprenticing as an apothecary and trying his hand in portraiture, Fernow studied philosophy under Karl Leonhard Reinhold in Jena in 1791–93. After spending 1794–1803 in Rome, he was appointed (at Goethe’s initiative) associate professor of aesthetics in Jena. In 1804 he also became the court librarian in Weimar. Developed a classicistic theory of art drawing on theories already presented by Kant and Schiller.

Fessler, Ignatz (Ignaz) Aurelius (1756–1839): Catholic cleric, scholar of near eastern studies, and Freemason, later also a Lutheran superintendent. Professor in Lemberg as a Capuchin monk, though requested and received a release from the order, thereafter becoming a Freemason. From 1791 a Lutheran, from 1796 lived in Berlin. Made Fichte’s acquaintance and eventually mediated the publication of Fichte’s Die Bestimmung des Menschen. From 1809 in St. Petersburg, though he lost his professorial position because of the suspicion of Kantianism and atheism.

Feuerbach, Johann Anselm (19 February 1755–1 March 1827): Attorney in Frankfurt am Main after attaining his law degree in Giessen. Father of Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach.

Anselm von FeuerbachFeuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von (1775–1833): Jurist, legal scholar, one of the most contentious legal scholars and the most significant scholar of criminal legislation in the nineteenth century. A native of Frankfurt, he fled to relatives in Jena to escape his father. There he studied philosophy especially under Karl Leonhard Reinhold, receiving his doctorate in 1795. Financial trouble, not least because of his future wife’s pregnancy (she a daughter of an illegitimate son of Duke Ernst August of Sachsen-Weimar), prompted him to begin legal studies in Jena in 1796 (especially under Gottlieb Hufeland and Andreas Joseph Schnaubert). He received his Dr. jur. in 1799. In 1801 he published a text on the general penal code in Germany, and in 1802 succeeded Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut as professor in Kiel. From 1804 in Landshut, where he was charged with drafting a Bavarian penal code. From 1805, at the initiative of Minister Maximilian von Montgelas, transferred to Munich as a privy administrator and advisor in the justice and police ministry. He thenceforth had an extremely active career providing the principles for a liberalization and recasting of the penal code in Germany (e.g., elimination of torture in Bavaria in 1806, elimination of crimes of morality as well as of punishments involving mutilation). Father of the philosopher of religion Ludwig Feuerbach. (Portrait: unknown artist.)

Hermann FichteFichte, Immanuel Hartmann (later: Hermann) (18 July 1796–8 August 1879) (initially named after Immanuel Kant and his [Immanuel Hartmann Fichte’s] maternal grandfather, the latter name later being changed to Hermann): Philosopher, Johann Gottlieb Fichte’s son, born shortly after Caroline and Wilhelm Schlegel arrived in Jena. Eventually studied philology, philosophy, and theology in Berlin, attaining his doctorate in 1818. Taught at various secondary schools from 1822 and in 1836 was appointed professor of philosophy in Bonn, from 1842 in Tübingen. One of the most important representatives of speculative theism. Also published his father’s works in 1845/46 in eight volumes. (1859 Portrait by Wilhelm Pilgram.)

Johann Gottlieb FichteFichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814): One of the preeminent philosophers of German Idealism; from 22 October 1793 married to Marie Johanne (Johanna), née Rahn. From a modest background, and after studying theology at Jena and Leipzig, Fichte worked for almost a decade as a private tutor in Leipzig, Zurich, Warsaw, and Danzig. His discovery of Kant in 1790 turned him into an ardent defender of the new philosophy, and after Kant published Fichte’s Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung anonymously in 1792 and was himself taken to be the author, Fichte acquired a reputation in the academic world overnight. Although some shorter writings raised the suspicion that Fichte might perhaps be too ardent a supporter of the French Revolution, he was appointed professor of philosophy in Jena in 1794 to succeed the Kantian Karl Leonhard Reinhold. During the next five years Fichte wrote several treatises formulating his new system, which he thought addressed the shortcomings in Kant’s system. The suspicion of atheism (along with his uncompromising temperament) cost him his position in Jena in 1799, after which he moved to Berlin, where after brief stays in Erlangen and Königsberg he was appointed professor in 1809 and rector in 1811 at the new university in Berlin. (Portrait: Pencil & ink portrait, Humboldt University Library, Berlin.)

Johanne FichteFichte, Marie Johanne (Johanna), née Rahn (1755–1819): From 22 October 1793 wife of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. A native of Zurich and a niece of Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock on her mother’s side (Klopstock’s sister Johanna Viktoria), she met Fichte (who was seven years her junior) in her father’s Saturday-evening salon while Fichte was yet tutoring the sons of a middle-class Zurich innkeeper. They were informally engaged when he left Zurich in May 1790, after which their relationship progressed largely through correspondence even while being essentially (and awkwardly) broken off by Fichte in the spring of 1791, presumably because he was still without a professional position and possibly did not want to be seen as a fortune seeker (Johanna stood to inherit a comfortable estate from her father). He renewed contact in December 1792 from Danzig (having become a celebrity for the publication of his initially anonymous Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung [Königsberg 1792]), and Johanna forgave him his disappearance. She did not initially accompany him (May–August 1794) when he received his appointment in Jena. (Portrait: frontispiece from Achtundvierzig Briefe von Johann Gottlieb Fichte und seinen Verwandten, ed. Moritz Weinhold [Leipzig 1862].)

Fielding, Henry (1707–54): Novelist, playwright, known esp. for his realistic novels, including Tom Jones (1749); also published a Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon (1755), to which Karl Hillebrand may also be alluding in his comparison of Caroline with Fielding.

Finckenstein, Countesses, at Ziebingen: Daughters of Friedrich Ludwig Karl Finck von Finckenstein (1745–1818): Henriette Amalie Dorothea (1 July 1774–23 November 1847), described as the “great love in his [Ludwig Tieck’s] life” (Roger Paulin, Ludwig Tieck. A Literary Biography, 160)]; Karoline Marie Ernestine (1776–1832), married to Hans Christian Genelli; and Luise Wilhelmine Sophie Barnime (1779–1812) and Luise Albertine Ulrike (born 22 July 1786), both of whom were later married to August Wilhelm von Schierstaedt (Schierstädt, Schierstett).

KFA von FinckensteinFinckenstein (Finkenstein), Karl Friedrich Albrecht von (1772–1811): Son of Friedrich Ludwig Karl, Count Finck von Finckenstein (1745–1818), the latter the former administrative president of the Prussian province Küstring (contemporary Kostrzyn in Poland). Finckenstein was for a time engaged to Rahel Levin. He eventually married Rosa Marquesa de Mello e Carvalho (1778–1841) and became Prussian emissary in Vienna, where he died. (Portrait: Westermanns Monatshefte 27 [1870], 137.)

JD FiorilloFiorillo, Johann Dominik (1748–1821): Painter, copper engraver, art historian in Göttingen. Son of an Italian orchestra conductor and composer in Hamburg. From 1759 studied painting at the academy in Bayreuth, then, as a thirteen-year-old, in Bologna. After a period in Braunschweig, he moved to Göttingen in 1781 as an independent painter. From 1784 head of the copperplate engraving collection in Göttingen, from 1796 of the art gallery, from 1799 associate professor, from 1813 full professor of art history in Göttingen. Students include Carl Friedrich von Rumohr and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Works include the Geschichte der zeichnenden Künste von ihrer Wiederauflebung bis in die neuesten Zeiten (1798–1808). Established art history as an independent university discipline. (Portrait: Giovanni Domenico Fiorillo and Heinrich Schwenterley; Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Inventar-Nr. A 6563.)

Fiorillo, Johann Wilhelm Raphael (1778–1816): Son of Johann Dominik Fiorillo. Studied in Göttingen, where he became a librarian in 1804.

Fischart, Johann (1546–90): Writer, satirist against Roman Catholicism and its representatives and institutions. Author of moral didactic satires as well, including against the alleged “prophecies” of almanacs, and of humorous pieces such as consolation for sufferers of gout. Known especially for his inventive verbal adroitness and dexterity, and for his humor.

Fischer, Christian August (1771–1829): Travel writer, philologist, private scholar. Studied law in Leipzig, then from 1794 traveled around Switzerland, Italy, and France, ultimately taking a position as private tutor in Spain (whence he became known as the “Spanish Fischer,” with the added wordplay in German “fisherman”), Holland, and Russia before returning to Germany in 1799. After a time as a private scholar in Dresden, he attained his master’s degree in Jena and was from 1804 professor of cultural and literary history in Würzburg, where he was a colleague and opponent of Schelling.

Fischer, Christian Ernst (born 1772): Physician in Lüneburg, presumably a son of Johann Ernst Fischer, the postmaster there (who was married to Caroline’s mother’s sister, whence Luise Wiedemann’s reference to the family as relatives and to Christian Ernst Fischer as her cousin). Studied in Göttingen, earning his medical doctorate in 1793, thereafter traveling to England, then practicing in Braunschweig after his return (where Luise Michaelis met him). Returned to his hometown of Lüneburg, then appointed professor of medicine in Jena, though he returned to Lüneburg after two years, remaining there as a general practitioner until 1840. Although his date of death is not known, Luise Wiedemann, Erinnerungen 35, writing after 1840 (her husband’s death), mentions that he was still alive.

Fischer, Johann Ernst († 1796): Postmaster in Lüneburg; married Caroline’s mother’s sister, the latter dying in childbirth.

Fischer, Johann Rudolf (1772–4 May 1800): Theologian, philosopher from Grosshöchstetten. 1795–97 student in Jena, where he was close friends with Johann Diederich Gries and attended the lectures esp. of Fichte. Became acquainted in Jena also with the Johann Friedrich Herbart, who traveled with him to Switzerland, where he made Pestalozzi’s acquaintance. Thereafter worked as a vicar, a teacher, then as a professor for philosophy and pedagogy and in various administrative pedagogical positions in Switzerland, and finally from 1799 as head of the municipal schools in Burgdorf.

Fladt, Josepha (Josephine), née Kanzler (15 July 1778 ([1780?]–5 May 1843): Daughter of Benno Friedrich and Franziska (née Weishaupt) Kanzler in Munich. From 1804 married to the Bavarian chamberlain, Geheimrath, and ministerial counselor Philipp von Fladt (Flad). Acknowledged as an extremely accomplished pianist and composer of lieder and cantatas, sonatas for the piano (also with violin accompaniment), quartets, and variations, though by 1811 had not published many of these pieces excepting two piano quartets and a national Bavarian hymn. Niece of Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati.

Fladt (Flad), Philipp von (dates unknown): Bavarian chamberlain, Geheimrath, and ministerial counselor. From 1804 married to Joseph, née Kanzler.

Flaxman, John (1755–1826): English sculptor and artist, friend of William Blake. Influenced early by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and the Greek formative arts. Studied in Rome 1787–94. Did illustrations for Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and to Dante’s Divina commedia.

JFF FleckFleck, Johann Friedrich Ferdinand (1757–20 December 1801): Actor, from 1793 married to Luise Sophie, née Mühl. Broke off his university study in Halle to pursue acting, debuting with the Bondini company in Leipzig in 1777 and then moving in 1779 to Hamburg and in 1783 to Berlin, becoming a member of the National Theater in 1786 and its stage director in 1790 (until August Wilhelm Iffland came in 1797). Played the title role brilliantly in the Berlin premiere of Schiller’s Wallenstein. Also played Götz von Berlichingen, Karl Moor, King Lear, and Shylock. Was once called the “true hero of the German stage” and was known, even as early as his debut performance, as a promising, daring, and gifted performer (over 2600 performances, over 200 different roles) if a sometimes difficult, easily excitable personality. (Portrait: 1783, frontispiece in Edgar Gross, Johann Friedrich Ferdinand Fleck; Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des deutschen Theaters [Berlin 1914].)

Luise FleckFleck, Luise Sophie, née Mühl (1777–1846): Actress. By all accounts a lovely girl when she debuted in the Berlin National Theater in June 1792 in the role of a peasant girl; she quickly won over the Berlin theater public no less than the heart of the actor Johann Friedrich Fleck, whom she married in 1793 and who helped her develop her talents. She is said to have performed with feeling, sincerity, and grace, and to have possessed a pleasant speaking voice. Guest performances in Breslau with Fleck in 1798 were followed, after the latter’s death, in 1805 by successful guest performances in Leipzig, Gotha, Frankfurt am Main, Mannheim, Stuttgart, and Kassel (she also performed in Vienna in 1808). Retired in 1842 after fifty years on the stage and was awarded the Gold Medal for Art and Science by the king of Prussia. (Portrait: 1783, plate v following p. 176 in Edgar Gross, Johann Friedrich Ferdinand Fleck; Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des deutschen Theaters [Berlin 1914].)

Fleischer, Madam, née Heun (dates unknown): Henriette Göschen’s (Georg Joachim Göschen’s wife’s) sister.

F FleischmannFleischmann, Friedrich (1766–98): Composer, court official. Became acquainted with theater and church music while attending school in Mannheim. From 1782 studied philosophy in Würzburg, receiving his doctorate in 1783, after which he also began studying law. From 1786 private secretary to and tutor of the sons of a higher official in Regensburg. From 1789 cabinet secretary to the duke of Sachsen-Meiningen, in which capacity he also organized and directed the court orchestra. From 1792 married to Johanna Christiane Louise, née von Schultes (1771–1856). He died prematurely on 30 November 1798, also leaving behind four children. His compositions include Die Geisterinsel, the opera by Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter (1796), several Lieder (1796 and 1798), and several pieces in other genres as well. (Portrait: Meininger Museen.)

Paul FlemingFleming, Paul (1609–40): Poet, originally trained as a physician but died shortly after arriving in Hamburg on his way to Reval to begin his practice (he had previously participated in an ill-fated commercial expedition to Russia). Although he largely followed the poetic conventions of his time, his poems, the earliest of which were often patterned after the psalms, also exhibit an immediacy of experience uncommon in the seventeenth century. Strongly influenced by the poetic theories and elegant versification of Martin Opitz. Generally recognized as one of the most significant poets of the Baroque era in Germany, with various poems being set to music (including Bach, BWV 97, the chorale cantata “In all meinen Taten”) and becoming popular additions to the Protestant hymnal. (Portrait: frontispiece to Teutsche Poemata [Jena 1666].)

Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris de (1755–94): French author of novels and fables, a favorite of Voltaire but sooner a disciple of Rousseau. Wrote a series of gentle comedies of bourgeois life with sentimental characters, romances, and pastoral elements.

Fludd, Robert (1574–1637): English mystical philosopher, theosopher, and physician in London. During his studies on the continent, he was influenced especially by Nicolaus Cusanus, Paracelsus, neo-Platonism, and hermeticism, prompting him to develop a philosophical system founded on the identity of physical and spiritual truth. His major work, the esoteric Utriusque cosmi maioris scilicet et minoris Metaphysica, physica atque technica Historia, generated considerable controversy with its central understanding of the larger world, or universe, as the macrocosm and the smaller world, or human being, as the microcosm. He posited two universal principals: the northern, or condensing power, and the southern, or rarefying power, and four elemental spirits corresponding to fire, air, earth, and water. Also associated with the debate on the authenticity of the Rosicrucian texts; thought by some to have been one of the fathers of Freemasonry.

Fock, Johann Georg von (1757–1835): Consistory councilor, provost, pastor, theological writer. From 1795 senior pastor at the Nikolai Church in Kiel, 1811–32 provost in Kiel.

GF FölkersahmFölkersahm, Georg Friedrich von (1766–1848): Courland student in Göttingen 1786–89 after studying at the Gymnasium in Mitau; in Göttingen he studied under, among others, Johann Stephan Pütter. Traveled in Switzerland, returning to Courland in 1791. Numerous administrative and diplomatic positions for Courland, then from 1803 deputy for the nobility in St. Petersburg, from 1812 in Riga, eventually a seated state Rath. Admirer of Dorothea Schlözer in Göttingen, close friend of Wilhelm Schlegel; indeed, Friedrich Schlegel laments on 21 November 1792 that the “womanish Foelkersahm” had coddled and softened Wilhelm, and though Wilhelm defended him, Friedrich’s opinion remained essentially negative (concerning Fölkersahm’s brother as well) (Walzel 61, 80). (Portrait: unknown artist.)

Forberg, Friedrich Karl (1770–1848): Philosopher. From 1792 private lecturer, from 1793 adjunct professor of philosophy in Jena in the tradition of Kant and Reinhold, from 1797 conrector in Saalfeld. His essay “Entwicklung des Begriffs der Religion” in Fichte and Niethammer’s Philosophisches Journal 8 (1798), to which Fichte wrote a preface, “Ueber den Grund unseres Glaubens an eine göttliche Weltordnung,” prompted the series of events resulting in charges of atheism against both Forberg and Fichte, and ultimately in Fichte’s dismissal from his position in Jena in 1799. Forberg later withdrew from philosophy altogether, from 1802 being employed in an archival administrative capacity in Coburg.

JN ForkelForkel, Johann Nikolaus (1749–1818: From 1769 student in Göttingen, from 1772 gave private lectures in music theory, from 1779 academic concert master, soon thereafter university music director. Professor of music in Göttingen, music historian and music bibliographer who some view as the initiator of modern music studies at the university level and who in 1802 published the first biography of J. S. Bach; Forkel’s students included Wilhelm Schlegel, A. von Humboldt, Wackenroder, and Tieck. From 10 June 1781 till 11 February 1794 husband of Meta Liebeskind, née Wedekind. (Portrait: engraving by unknown artist.)

Forkel, Meta, née Wedekind, later married name Liebeskind: see Liebeskind, Meta.

Forster, Antonia Elisabeth Susanna (Antonie) (19 September 1758–ca. 1820): Sister of Georg Forster and thus sister-in-law of Therese née Heyne. Grew up initially in England. A hunchback or similar physical deformity, which she tried to conceal with clothing, seems to have ruined her chances for marriage, so she remained single and earned her living as a governess. 1776–82 a governess in Vienna, 1782–83 in Halle, 1784–84 in Surinam, 1785–87 in Copenhagen, 1788–91 in Hannover, and from 1791 to ca. 1800 governess of the princesses of Courland and Sagan in Mitau and Sagen, whose aunt was Elisa von der Recke, with whom Caroline had tried unsuccessfully to arrange a situation for her sister Lotte Michaelis as traveling companion.

Forster, Clara (Claire, Cläre, Kläre, Kläry) (22 November 1789–1839): Second daughter of Georg and Therese Forster. From 1805 wife of Gottlieb von Greyerz (1778–1855), a former (from 1799) student in Göttingen and later a Bavarian forestry official.

Georg ForsterForster, Johann Georg Adam (27 November 1754–10 January 1794 Paris): Writer, natural scientist, ethnologist. Lived and traveled in Russia from 1765, then in England 1766–78. He and his father went along on James Cook’s second south sea voyage (1772–75), Forster publishing an account of their experiences in A Voyage towards the South Pole and round the World (2 vols., 1777; German ed. 1778–80). (In 1799 the university in Göttingen acquired Forster’s personal collection, and the Cook-Foster collection there now represents one of the most distinguished collections of ethnographica from the Southern Pacific in the world.) 1779–84 professor of natural history in Cassel, 1784–87 in Vilnius, marrying Therese Heyne in 1785. From 1788 he was librarian in Mainz, and in 1790 traveled through the Netherlands, England, and France with Alexander von Humboldt. As a natural scientist he developed a method of “participatory observation”; his concurrent views of natural and human history, his discussion of the formative arts, aesthetics, and his ethnological understanding of anthropology and culture are still highly regarded. After Mainz was taken by French troops, he became an active revolutionary, supporting the inclusion of the Rhineland into France. In 1793 he went to Paris in this connection as a member of the Mainz republicans, then being outlawed in Germany and dying in Paris the following year. Soon after his death, Therese Forster married Ludwig Ferdinand Huber. (Portrait: uncertain artist; known as the “Frankfurt painting [June 1784],” probably to be ascribed to Anton Graff; Museum für Völkerkunde, Frankfurt am Main.)

Forster, Johann George Karl (21 April–23/24 July 1792): Son of Georg and Therese Forster (the biological father presumably being Ludwig Ferdinand Huber).

Johann Reinhold ForsterForster, Johann Reinhold (1729–98): Father of Georg Forster; professor of natural history and mineralogy in Halle. Originally wanted to be a physician, studied theology instead. Dissatisfied with his position, in 1765 he took a leave of absence and traveled through Russia with his son Georg Forster. From 1766 teacher, translator, and writer in England, from 1770 in London. Sailed with James Cook on the latter’s second trip around the world in 1772–75. From 1780 profesor in Halle. (Portrait: engraved by Johann Friedrich Bause after Anton Graff.)

Forster, Johanna Ludowika Georgia (Louise, Luise) (4 June–17 November 1791): Born in Mainz, third daughter of Georg and Therese Forster (the biological father presumably being Ludwig Ferdinand Huber).

Forster, Marie Therese (Röse) (10 August 1786–1862): Born in Vilnius, Poland, as the first daughter of Georg and Therese Forster, albeit described at birth by her mother as “only a daughter” (viz. rather than a boy). Therese Forster knew Caroline in Mainz, then from July 1801 till the spring of 1806 lived with the family of the writer Isabelle de Charrière in Le Pontet, Colombier, Switzerland, primarily to broaden her horizons and develop her personality amid different company. For twenty years thereafter, Therse worked as a governess or educator in various situations in Switzerland, Holland, Berlin, and Arnstadt, returning to live with her mother in Augsburg in 1826, when she was forty. After the latter’s death in 1829, Therese lived with family of her sister Claire in Bayreuth, then from 1831 with her brother-in-law Emil von Herder, till 1841 in Augsburg, then in Erlangen, and finally with her niece Adele von Herder in Albisheim and Freinsheim. Biographical information: Magdalene Heuser, “‘Therese ist der Contrast meines Wesens.’ Therese Hubers Briefe an ihre Tochter Therese Forster 1797–1828,” in Mutter und Mütterlichkeit: Wandel und Wirksamkeit einer Phantasie in der deutschen Literatur: Festschrift für Verena Ehrich-Haefeli, ed. Irmgard Roebling, Wolfram Mauser (Würzburg 1996), 131–47, here 134–36.

Fouqué, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte; (1777–1843): Of Prussian military heritage, he resigned his own military commission in 1803 to marry Karoline von Briest, living then on his wife’s estate near Berlin (where August Ludwig Hülsen married one of his relatives), quickly becoming one of the most widely read of the Romantic playwrights, though also of novels and other fiction and poetry. Reentered the military in 1813 against Napoleon.

Fourcroy, Antoine François, comte de (1755–1809): French chemist, collaborator with Antoine Lavoisier, Guyton de Morveau, and Claude Berthollet in publishing the Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique (Paris, 1787; English, General System of Chemical Knowledge (11 vols., 1801–2), a work that helped standardize chemical nomenclature. From 1784 lecturer in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi in Paris.

Fox, Charles James (1749–1806): Whig statesman in the House of Commons, rival of William Pitt the Younger, resolute opponent of George III and supporter of the American and French revolutions against such despots, Fox himself even dressing in the colors of George Washington’s army. Briefly served as foreign secretary in 1782, corresponded with Thomas Jefferson and met Benjamin Franklin in Paris.

Francis I (Germ.: Franz I.) (1494–1547): From 1515 King of France; played a part in the development of the Renaissance in France by protecting and encouraging artists; an admirer of Leonardo, who followed him to France in 1516 from Milan, remaining there until his death in 1519. In his attempt to be elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1519, Francis was defeated by the later Charles V. Engaged in several wars with the Empire 1521–25 (taken prisoner after defeat at Pavia, released 1526), 1527—29, 1536—38, 1542–44.

Fraenkel, Sophie (earlier: Sara), née Meyer (1767–1857): Sister of Dorothea Veit’s sister-in-law Henriette (Hinni) Mendelssohn, née Meyer, the wife of Dorothea’s brother Joseph Mendelssohn. Dorothea (letter 247c) compares her apperarance to that of Caroline. Sophie was the daughter of Nathan Meyer (or Meyerkatz) (1740–1814) from Strelitz, a friend of Moses Mendelssohn; Sophie’s brother Mendel married Dorothea’s sister Recha Mendelssohn. From 1787 Sophie was married to Michael Joseph Fraenkel (or Frankel, Fränkel), from whom she was divorced in 1796 or 1798 (also changing her name from Sara to Sophie), hence Dorothea’s reference to her as ci-devant Fraenkal. She later married the banker H. P. Pobecheim (Pobeheim) in Paris; it seems Friedrich Schlegel and Dorothea lived next door to Pobecheim when they moved to Paris in 1802, since Friedrich writes to Wilhelm on 16 September 1802 that his direct address was “rue de la Victoire près celle de Montblanc nro. 2 chez Mr. Pobecheim.” Just two months later, Dorothea was irritated with Madam Pobecheim (to Schleiermacher from Paris on 21 November 1802) for being “quite amiable, pleasant, and charming” but for having “no concept of what we need” (i.e., financial assistance). The Berlin banker Josef Maximilian Fraenkel (1787–1857) was Sophie Fraenkel’s son from her first marriage.

Frank (dates unknown): Apparently the Schellings’ manservant in Würzburg.

Frankenberg, Sylvius Friedrich Ludwig von (1728–1815): Minister in Gotha.

Frankenstein (Franckenstein), Chamberlain von und zu (dates unknown): Diplomat, head of the Würzburg corps of marksmen mentioned in connection with Ferdinand III’s reception in Würzburg in May 1806. Erich Schmidt, (1913), 2:655, reads “Franckenstein”; Bonaventura Andress, Chronik des Churfürstenthums Würzburg 1 (1806) 7 (3rd May 1806), 83, reads “Frankenstein.”

Franz (Francis) II (1768–1835): From the house of Habsburg-Lothringen; 1792–1806 emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (i.e., till the end of the Holy Roman Empire itself); from 1804 Emperor of Austria as Franz I. Son of Emperor Leopold II, nephew of Maria Antoinette, from 1810 father-in-law of Napoleon (who married his daughter, Marie-Louise). Made several ill-advised and unsuccessful military decisions after becoming emperor, not the least of which was the decision to invade France in the summer of 1792.

Frederick VI of Denmark (1768–1839): From 13 March 1808 King of Denmark and King of Norway (the latter only until 1814). On 1 July 1790 he married his first cousin, Marie Sophie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel (28 October 1767–1852). Luise Wiedemann’s husband, Christian Rudolf Wiedemann, attended the mother during the birth of her first daughter in 1808, Princess Wilhelmine Marie of Denmark and Norway, the parents having come to Kiel during the English bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807.

Friederike Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt (1751–1805): From 14 July 1769 (unhappily) married to the later (1786) king of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm II; mother of Friedrich Wilhelm III.

Fridheim (Friedhelm), Janette (Jeanette) Christiane: From Gotha, second wife of Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Dieterich (Lotte Michaelis’s husband).

Friedrich II (1720–85): Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. Married Marie, a daughter of George II in 1740 but separated from her and his three sons after converting secretly to Catholicism in 1749, though his father, Landgrave Wilhelm VIII decreed in 1754 that the Protestant religion in Hesse remain undisturbed. In 1773, after Marie’s death in 1772, he married Princess Philippine of Prussia (1745–1800), from the secondary Prussian line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. He never saw his first wife again, and did not see his sons again until 1782 (Caroline recounts this event in letter 36). After becoming landgrave himself in 1760, he engaged in considerable building campaigns in Kassel and brought artists and scholars to the city, establishing an academy of fine arts in 1777 and the first publicly accessible museum, the Fridericianum, in 1779. These projects were also financed by hiring out mercenaries to other states, including France and Great Britain, Friedrich supplying over 20,000 troops to King George III for duty in the American Revolutionary War. Although Caroline joins the indignation otherwise commonly provoked by this practice, it was in fact common at the time, and even Friedrich’s father had hired out troops to Great Britain.

Friedrich II of Prussia (the Great) (1712–86): From 1740 King of Prussia, also during the War of Austrian Succession (1740–48), variously involved in the European military theater; Built the palace of Sans Souci near Potsdam as a royal residence. Allied with England during the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), during which he exhibited considerable military skill, with Prussia emerging with an enhanced military reputation. Patron of literature, inviting Voltaire to his court (1750–53) and favoring French culture. Liberalized censorship and took a more tolerant position regarding religion.

Friedrich August I of Saxony (Augustus the Strong) (1670–1733): Prince elector of Saxony (as Friedrich August I) and, from 1697, king of Poland and Grand Prince of Lithuania (as August II). Prolific patron of the arts through both construction and collections, establishing Dresden’s reputation as a Baroque metropolis and contributing substantially to its cultural florescence (“Florence on the Elbe River”). (Not to be confused with Friedrich August I of Saxony, the Just.)

Friedrich August I of SaxonyFriedrich August I of Saxony (Joseph Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Aloys Xaver, “the Just”) (1750–1827): From 1763 as Friedrich August III the electoral prince of Saxony, and from 1806 first king of Saxony; from 1791 also King of Poland, but from 1807–15 only Duke of Warsaw. From 1769 married to Maria Amalie Auguste von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler. One of the most significant supporters of the development of the Dresden Royal Art Gallery, though also the prince elector who would declare Johann Gottlieb Fichte an atheist in 1799. (Portrait: anonymous watercolor, 18th century.)

Friedrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1688–1740): From 1713 King of Prussia, known esp. for domestic administrative advances and centralization and in expanding and consolidating the military, though was never involved in broader military campaigns. Had a reputation for being excessively frugal and inclined to conduct the business of court on military principles, known also for his pride in his guard regiment of tall soldiers (die langen Kerls). Father of Friedrich the Great.

Friedrich Wilhelm II of PrussiaFriedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (1744–16 November 1797): From 1786 King of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg, Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, nephew of Friedrich II (the Great). From 1765 unhappily married to Elisabeth Christine Ulrike von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of Duke Karl I zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, whom he divorced and exiled in 1769. Second wife Friederike Luise von Hesse-Darmstadt, who gave birth in August 1770 to the next Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III. In 1792–93 courted Sophie Bethmann unsuccessfully, though it was through that relationship that Philipp Michaelis was able to secure Caroline’s release from Königstein in July 1793. Supported French royalty during the French Revolution (1792–95), but lost Prussian territory west of the Rhine River. (Portrait: ca. 1791 by Anton Graff.)

Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770–1840): Son of Friedrich Wilhelm II, from 1797 King of Prussia. Enormously popular not least because of his marriage to Luise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but a timid and hesitant ruler. Did not join the Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon in 1805, entering the war too late, namely, in the autumn of 1806, and was defeated ignominiously at Jena, thereafter having to watch his state essentially dismembered in 1807. Although initially a tentative liberal (and welcomed as such not least by some of the Romantics), he eventually aligned with the Metternich policies.

Friedrich Wilhelm Karl von Württemberg (1754–1816): From 1797 Duke Friedrich II, from 1803 till 1806 Electoral Prince, and from 1806 till 1816 first king (as Friedrich I) of Württemberg.

Fries, Jakob Friedrich (1773–1843): Philosopher, physicist, mathematician. From 1795 studied law and philosophy in Leipzig, then from 1797 philosophy in Jena under Fichte, after which he worked as a private tutor in Switzerland till 1800, the same year he received his doctorate under Fichte. From 1801, when he attained his Habilitation authorizing him to lecture, he lectured on philosophy in Jena. From 1805 associate professor of philosophy in Jena (with Hegel), but that same year appointed professor in Heidelberg for philosophy, mathematics, and (1812) physics. From 1816 again in Jena, forced to retire in 1819 because of alleged involvement with secret societies. He had spoken at the Wartburgfest in 1817, and Karl Ludwig Sand, who murdered Kotzebue, was one of his students. He was later able to resume lecturing. Published a treatise on Reihnhold, Fichte und Schelling in 1803, but his most important work was his Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft (1807), an attempt to provide a new foundation to the critical theory of Kant. Fries was vehemently opposed to the Romantic circles after returning to Jena.

Fritsch, Jakob Friedrich, Baron von (1731–1814): From 1756 in the Weimar administration, from 1762 member of the privy council there, from 1767 president. In 1775, when Karl August reached maturity and took over the government of the duchy, Fritsch was the only member voting against accepting Goethe into the privy council — for whom Fritsch then later served as the model of the politician Antonio Montecatino in the play Torquato Tasso (1790).

Frölich (variously Fröhlich, Fröhlig), Heinrich († 14 March 1806): Publisher, bookseller. In September 1798, Frölich bought the company of the bookseller Johann Friedrich Vieweg (founded in 1786), who wanted to move his business to Braunschweig, along with the latter’s bookseller’s privilege, which was transferred to him on 1 January 1799 along with the physical assets of the company, thus establishing the Frölich’sche Buchhandlung. He continued publication of Athenaeum as well as works by August Ferdinand Bernhardi (Sprachlehre), Friedrich von Gentz (Politisches Journal), and Schleiermacher. In February 1806, Karl Duncker, just twenty-five years old, joined the company, becoming director when Frölich died just six weeks later. After years of financial troubles caused not least by the wars at the time, he and Peter Humblot bought the company in 1809 from Frölich’s widow, after which it became Duncker & Humblot.

Frommann, Friedrich Johannes (Fritz) (1797–1886): Son of the publisher Friedrich Frommann in Jena. From 1823 worked in the family business, taking over in 1837.

Frommann_JohannaFrommann, Johanna (Johanne), née Wesselhöfft (or Wesselhöft) (Caroline generally spells it Fromman) (17 June 1765–1830): From November 1792 wife of Karl Friedrich Ernst Frommann. Niece of the Hamburg bookseller Bohn, eldest daughter of the conrector of the Johanneum Gymnasium in Hamburg. Kept an extremely social household and salon in Jena. Her brother, Johann Carl Wesselhöft, moved his printing business to Jena in 1800. (Self-portrait: in Günther H. Wahnes, Freundliches Begegnen: Goethe, Minchen Herzlieb und das Frommannsche Haus [Stuttgart, Jena 1927], 224.)

KFE FrommannFrommann (Fromann, Fromman), Karl Friedrich Ernst (Caroline generally spells it Fromman) (1765 Züllichau–1837 Jena): Publisher. Son of a family that since 1726 had worked in a publishing house in Züllichau (founded in 1719) and owned the latter since 1785. From 1782 apprenticed in Berlin with the publisher August Mylius, where he also came into contact with various of Berlin’s intellectual community, including the young Humboldt brothers and became interested in the theater as represented by the company of Karl Theophil Döbbelin (including the actor Johann Friedrich Ferdinand Fleck) in Berlin at the time. One of his colleagues was Friedrich Vieweg, with whom he became lifelong friends. After Frommann’s father died unexpectedly in early 1786, leaving behind a widow, a younger son, and a daughter, Frommann, hardly twenty-one, found himself with the imposing task of taking over the family publishing business; only the persuading of Friedrich Nicolai convinced him to go ahead. After years of arduous work, he was able to buy the company from his co-heirs entirely in 1794, publishing the first Greek-German dictionary in 1797. He married the niece of the publisher Carl Bohn, Johanna Wesselhöft in November 1792, a woman who spoke several modern foreign languages and was already adept at managing a household, her own mother having been seriously ill for some time. In 1798 Frommann, who was coming under pressure from Prussian authorities for his membership in a secret Freemason society, sold the retail company and moved to Jena to expand his operation among the intellectual elite of the period, virtually all of whom he got to know, many as friends, and many of whom he published, his own house thereby becoming one of the social centers of Jena during this period. In 1800 he merged his publishing company with the printing company of his brother-in-law Carl Wesselhöft, taking over the printing of numerous editions for Johann Friedrich Cotta and Johann Georg Justus Perthes. (Portrait: 1830 by Johann Joseph Schmeller.)

Frommann, Sophia Albina (Allwina) (16 March 1800–2 August 1875): Daughter of the publisher Friedrich and Johanne Frommann in Jena. Book illustrator and arabesque painter, and from 1848–73 companion and reader for the Prussian princess and later queen and German empress Augusta. Made the acquaintance of the numerous representatives of German cultural history who frequented her parents’ salon while she was a young girl and woman. Close friend of the poet and translator Johann Diederich Gries in Jena, who frequented her parents’ house between 1795 and 1837 and composed, among others the following poem for her birthday in 1828: “No one reads my verses, / As is oft the lot of bad poets; / You alone perhaps of all living beings / Scorn them not. / This weak lyre shall go silent, / Ne’er its raspy tones to resound — / Lest for a birthday celebration, / When all verses are beautiful. / And yet even these light, modest verses / Do I send not without hesitation; / Hence with roses have I adorned them, / Which are, of course, eternal poesy itself!” Also enjoyed a close relationship with Goethe, who consoled her at his home in Weimar after her mother’s death in 1830. In 1838 she moved from Jena to Berlin, being initially employed as a companion to Luise von Altenstein, daughter of the Prussian minister. Allwina seems to have frequented the Schelling household in Berlin after Schelling moved there in 1841. Retired to Weimar for the final three years of her life after the onset of illness, passing away from a stroke, as fate would have it, back in her birthplace, Jena, while visiting her brother.

Ludwig Friedrich FroriepFroriep, Ludwig Friedrich von (1779–1847): Surgeon, anatomist. Studied in Jena, specializing in obstetrics. Received doctorate in 1799, Habilitation in 1801, becoming deputy director of the maternity hospital in Jena. From 29 April 1801 married to Charlotte Bertuch. From 1804–06 professor in Halle, from 1808 in Tübingen, from 1814 royal physician in Stuttgart, from 1816 in Weimar, where in 1818 he took over the publishing business of his father-in-law Friedrich Justin Bertuch, which published various practical handbooks at the time. (Portrait: Tübingen Gallery of Professors.)

Fuchs, Karl (Carl) Heinrich (1773–2 April 1847): Theologian, clergyman. Native of Heidelberg, where he also attended the university. From 1796 pastor in Wachenheim, from 1799 field chaplain, from 1803 consistory councilor, professor, and military preacher in Würzburg; from 1806 consistory councilor in Bamberg, from 1810 in Regensburg, from 1817 in Ansbach, and from 1835 in Munich.

Fuchs, Johann Friedrich (1774–1828): Studied medicine under Justus Christian Loder and general humanities in Jena. In the winter semester 1803/04, after Loder’s departure, Fuchs lectured on anatomy. Because he was not promoted, however, he left in March 1804 to become professor of anatomy in Würzburg, receiving the promotion in Jena on 15 March 1804, two days after accepting the appointment in Würzburg. After Jacob Fidelis Ackermann’s departure from Würzburg to succeed Loder in Jena, Fuchs himself left in 1805 to become Hofrath and professor of anatomy back in Jena, as well as director of the anatomical museum.

Fulda, Carl Friedrich (1724–88): Protestant theologian and philologist who contributed to the establishment of a unified New High German language. Attended school in Stuttgart, the university in Tübingen, then worked as a military chaplain. Studied at the newly established university in Göttingen from 1749, then from 1751 worked again as a military chaplain and from 1758 as pastor in Mühlhausen an der Enz.

Füssli, Johann Heinrich (1741–1825): Swiss painter who settled in London in 1764 after studying in Rome. Drawn to the darker Gothic passions and expressions of human nature, taking many of his subjects from writers such as Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, and the alleged poet Ossian.

Funk (Funck), Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von (1761–1828): Saxon army officer, one of Friedrich Schlegel’s acquaintances in Dresden, also an acquaintance of Christian Gottfried Körner and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis). Contributed to the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung and Die Horen (“Robert Guiskard. Herzog von Apulien und Calabrien,” Die Horen [1797] 9, no. 1, 1–58; no. 2, 1– 33; no. 3, 1–14); in 1792 he published Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs des Zweiten (Züllichau und Freystadt 1792), a work that drew Hardenberg’s attention to the Ofterdingen legend (as reflected in the latter’s posthumous Heinrich von Ofterdingen). From 1791 cavalry officer in the Saxon Husar regiment, 1806 in Jena. From 1818 envoy in London. Also published on paintings during the time of the crusades (1821–24).