Kalb, Charlotte Sophie Juliane von, née Marschalk von Ostheim (1761–1843): Writer. Born in the family castle in Waltershausen and orphaned at eight years old, she and her siblings were reared by various relatives. In 1783 she married Heinrich von Kalb, who at the time was in the service of the French. Their relationship was never one of love. Although she initially followed him to Landau, since it was not customary for officers’ wives to live in the same city, she moved to Mannheim, where she had met Schiller in 1784. The two formed a close relationship (with her in the role of muse and patroness) that was interrupted when Schiller, whom she had brought to the attention of Duke Karl August of Weimar, moved to Leipzig in 1785. She eventually moved to Weimar in 1787 after a brief stay in Gotha, where she reconnected with Schiller, albeit in a less intense relationship, very much to her chagrin, she thinking of divorce and marriage to him, he by contrast having already become engaged to Charlotte von Lengefeld (Charlotte burned all but two of their letters). After her husband lost his position in French service because of the revolution, they lived in Waltershausen (1792–94), where the poet Friedrich Hölderlin, at Schiller’s recommendation, tutored her son Friedrich. After returning to Weimar in 1796 and with increasing problems with her eyesight, she entered into a passionate relationship with Jean Paul (Friedrich Richter; she is the “Linda” in his novel Titan), but he broke off the relationship in 1799, and she withdrew again to Waltershausen. Her brother-in-law’s and husband’s ill management of the estate, however, had gradually impoverished it, and after its virtual financial collapse in 1804, she had to cease the rather expensive treatment for her eye ailments which she had had since her youth and moved to Berlin, living in various other locales over the next few years as well but eventually returning there. Her husband committed suicide in Munich in 1806. In Berlin her daughter became a lady-in-waiting at the court, Charlotte herself made many friends (including Fichte and Wilhelm von Humboldt), but became increasingly impoverished, eventually selling tea, chocolate, and other luxury items, but eventually, through receiving a small apartment in the royal residence in 1820 at the behest of Princess Marianne, a sister-in-law of Friedrich Wilhelm III. She eventually lost her sight completely but did dictate a rather eccentric, tense novel, Cornelia, and her memoires, both of which were published posthumously. Moreover she carried on correspondences with many of the literary and cultural figures of the day. (Portrait: Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der Deutschen Nationallitteratur: Eine Ergänzung zu jeder Deutschen Litteraturgeschichte [Marburg 1887], 223.)
Kalb, Rezia (later called Edda) von (23 September 1790–1877): Daughter of Charlotte von Kalb. Her name “Rezia” is that of the caliph’s daughter in Christoph Martin Wieland’s verse drama Oberon (1780).
Kaltwasser, Johann Friedrich Salomon (1752–1813): Private tutor of Friedrich Jacobs and his brother Wilhelm Jacobs. Scholar of classical philology, later a colleague of Friedrich Jacobs at the Gymnasium in Gotha.
Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804): Philosopher. Kant lived his entire life in Königsberg, where from 1755 he was a private lecturer at the university and from 1770 a professor of logic and metaphysics. His “three critiques” profoundly influenced the thinking of the late Enlightenment and the philosophers of German Idealism, notably, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, though certainly also the entire contemporaneous generation, including writers such as Schiller. The three critiques were the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), to which one might also add his Religion within the Boundaries of Pure Reason (1793; Fichte’s anonymously published Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation in 1792 was at first thought to have been Kant’s work). (Portrait: 1791, Gottlieb Doebler; Museum Stadt Künigsberg, Inv. Nr. 74; second copy for Johann Gottfried Carl Christian Kiesewetter.)
Kanzler, Franziska, née Weishaupt (dates unknown): Sister of Adam Weishaupt; married to Benno Friedrich Kanzler (1749–1811), the latter from 1775 municipal physician in Tölz, later in Munich, where Caroline became acquainted with Franziska and her daughter.
Karl (Carl) August, Duke of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (1757–1828): from 1758 Duke and from 1815 Grand Duke of Saxony Weimar-Eisenach, though till 1775 his mother, Anna Amalia of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, acted as regent; she also quickly (1772) engaged the services of Christoph Martin Wieland as his tutor. On the return journey of an educational tour to France, he met and became engaged to Princess Luise in Darmstadt, then met and issued an invitation to Goethe in Frankfurt, the latter of whom arrived in Weimar in November 1775, where he remained for the rest of his life except for various journeys. Karl August is known less for his political or military activities than as a patron, often under Goethe’s influence, of the cultural development known later as Weimar Classicism in both Weimar and Jena, which touched on the lives of not only Goethe, but also Johann Gottfried Herder, Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, and also enhanced the cultural life in both towns through library and scientific acquisitions and collections and theater development as well. Because of the cultural and industrial improvements he supported, the duchy eventually became the literary center of Germany during his reign. (Portrait: engraving after a painting by Georg Melchior Kraus.)
Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1728—93): From 1741 educated at the court of Friedrich II of Prussia in Berlin, where he was impressed by the Prussian and French court style, which later, to the financial detriment of his duchy, he tried to emulate. On his way back to Stuttgart in 1756 he became engaged to the nine-year-old princess Elisabeth Friederike Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, whom he married in 1748 but who left him in 1756 because of his numerous mistresses. After considerable administrative troubles during the first half of his rule, he tried to implement a more enlightened rule during the second half, not least under the influence of his mistress and later wife Franziska von Hohenheim. He established, among other improvements, the military academy later called the Hohe Karlsschule, where Schiller received his training as a physician, and is responsible for numerous landmarks and cultural institutions in Ludwigsburg and Stuttgart, including the Stuttgart Castle (cornerstone 1746). (Portrait: by Jakob Friedrich Weckherlin.)
Karl (Charles) Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich (Austria), Duke of Teschen (1771–1847): Austrian field commander from the house of Habsburg-Lothringen. Third son of the Archduke of Tuscany and later emperor Leopold II, younger brother of the later emperor Franz II. 1793/94 general governor of the Austrian Netherlands, 1796 till 1800 commander of the Austrian army in southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland. When his elder brother (besides the later emperor Franz II) Ferdinand III of Tuscany had to exchange the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for that of Würzburg as a result of the Peace of Pressburg in December 1805, the repercussions prompted Caroline and Schelling’s move to Munich in 1806.
Karl Theodor Maximilian August, Prince of Bavaria (1795–1875): Youngest son of Prince Elector (from 1806 King) Maximilian of Bavaria from his first marriage. His elder brother, Ludwig Karl August, became King Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1825.
Kästner, Abraham (1719–1800): Mathematician, writer. Studied both law and mathematics in Leipzig, becoming a professor in 1746 and receiving an appointment in Göttingen in 1756, also becoming director of the observatory there in 1763. Equally prolific publications in both mathematics and the natural science, on the one hand, and literary-poetic materials, on the other, the latter including especially didactic poems, pointed epigrams, and an inclination to combine literature, science, and the proper use of language. Opposed the preference for Latin and French over German, especially in the sciences. Representative of the late Enlightenment in Germany. (Portrait: 1770, by Johann Heinrich Tischbein d.J.)
Kastner, Karl Wilhelm Gottlob (1783–1857) and (from 1806) his wife, Franziska Susanne Charlotte, née Heddaeus (1785–1823): Karl Kastner studied chemistry in Jena under the influence of the philosophy of nature, though Schelling had already left, and received his doctorate in 1804. Often considered the primary representative of chemistry in Germany from the perspective of the philosophy of nature and as one of the most significant German chemists of the day. From 1805 professor of chemistry in Heidelberg, from 1812 in Halle, then 1819–21 first professor of physics, pharmacy, and chemistry at the newly founded university in Bonn. From 1821 professor in Erlangen.
Kaufmann, Angelica (1741–1807): Swiss painter, musician. Demonstrated precocious artistic talent as a child and received instruction from her father. Early ecclesiastical portrait commissions helped further her career. From 1763 in Rome and Venice, where she met several English noblemen on their Grand Tours, whereupon she decided to move to England herself (from 1766), where in 1768 she was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy. After divorcing the charlatan count Frederick de Horn, whom she had married in 1767, she married the Italian painter Antonio Zucchi in 1781 and retired to Italy in 1783.
Kellermannm, François-Christophe (1735–1820): French military commander who was one of the heroes of the Battle of Valmy; although later imprisoned during the Revolution, he was reinstated, becoming one of the first members of the Senate and a maréchal de l’empire under Napoleon.
Keppel, Admiral Augustus, 1st Viscount PC (1725–86): Officer in the British Royal Navy during the Seven Years’ War and the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty. Concerning his career during the period he is mentioned in Caroline’s letters (1778–79), see Encyclopedia Brittanica (1911) s. v. (supplementary appendix 6.1).
Kersaint, Armand-guy-Simon, Count de Kersaint (1742–93): French Girondin and navy officer, sided with the French revolutionaries despite his own noble lineage, though voted against the execution of Louise XVI and vehemently opposed the September massacres in 1792. After accusing Jean-Paul Marat of having instigated the latter, he was arrested on 23 September 1792 and executed for having advocated the restoration of the monarchy.
Kestner, Georg Wilhelm Eduard (1805–92): Archivist and grandson of Charlotte (Lotte) Buff (wife of Johann Georg Christian Kestner and prototype for the character of Lotte in Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers). After a career in the Hannoverian civil service, he settled in Dresden in 1865 and pursued his interest in assembling one of the most comprehensive collections of original letters of significant cultural and political personalities from the late 18th and early 19th centuries (ca. 20,000 letters). The collection passed to the university library in Leipzig in 1892
Kestner, Johann Christian (1741–1800): Civil administrator in Hannover. From 1762 studied law in Göttingen, 1767–73 secretary to the Hannoverian envoy at the Imperial Court in Wetzlar, later an administrator in Hannover. Kestner provided the prototype for the character of Albert in Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774) insofar as he was the betrothed (and later husband) of Charlotte Buff, the prototype for Lotte in Werther, with whom Goethe himself became infatuated after she was already engaged to Kestner; Kestner also loaned Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem the pistol with which the latter committed suicide, providing the outline to Goethe’s story line. (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 271.)
Kielmeyer, Karl (also Carl) Friedrich (1765–1844): Natural scientist, physician. From 1773–76 at the Karlsakademie in Stuttgart, after which he traveled for two years in Germany and also studied in Göttingen under Friedrich Blumenbach and Georg Christoph Lichtenberg. From 1790 taught zoology at the Hohe Karlsschule, from 1792 full professor of chemistry in the medical school. After this school was closed, he traveled to the North and Baltic Seas and again visited Göttingen. From 1796 professor of chemistry in Tübingen, from 1801 professor of botany, comparative anatomy, and materia medica. From 1817 in Stuttgart, largely in an administrative capacity. Most famous publication was Ueber die Verhältnisse der organischen Kräfte unter einander in der Reihe der verschiedenen Organisationen, die Geseze und Folgen dieser Verhältnisse (1793), one of the most important texts (albeit at only forty-six pages) for the understanding of medicine, science, and philosophy around 1800. His hierarchical understanding of organisms and of “organic powers,” in part conceived as evolution, and his understanding of a fundamental power driving the development of the earth and of life profoundly influenced the Romantic natural scientists and the philosophy of nature of German Idealism (Schelling). (Portrait by Anton Ferdinand Krüger; Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen.)
Kieser, Dietrich Georg (1779–1862): Studied medicine first in Göttingen under Karl Gustav Himly, then attended Schelling’s lectures in Jena. Became a general practitioner in Nordheim near Göttingen, from 1812 professor of medicine in Jena, from 1824 full professor, and after Lorenz Oken’s departure one of the leading figures at the university there. Eventually became quite interested in the mentally ill, for many years head of the institution for the mentally ill in Jena. (Undated portrait by E. Schenk.)
Kilian, Konrad Joseph (1771–1811): Native of Würzburg, physician, also to Caroline. Initially trained as a Catholic cleric. Regarded as the best systematician among the physicians who were adherents of Schelling’s philosophy of nature. Lecturer in Jena, where he unsuccessfully tried to gain his Habilitation in 1801 (Caroline mentions Justus Loder’s opposition), from 1803 professor and Bavarian medical administrator in Bamberg (where he was second physician after Adalbert Friedrich Marcus) as Andreas Röschlaub’s successor. In 1804 he feuded with Marcus and in 1805 went to Würzburg, in 1806 to Leipzig, then returned to Bamberg in 1807. From 1809/10 personal consulting physician to Alexander I of Russia, who appointed him to a position in St. Petersburg, where Kilian died in 1811. In Jena he was likely a close acquaintance of Schelling and Hegel.
Kirchgessner, Marianne (1769–1808): Celebrated virtuoso on the glass harmonica. Born in Bruchsal. Though she went blind at four years old after contracting smallpox, she nonetheless toured extensively, including performances in Vienna, where she met Mozart, who was so taken by her performance that he composed a quintet for her for glass harmonica, flute, oboe, viola, and violoncello, and a solo piece. Also performed in Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin, Hamburg, and even London and Petersburg. In March 1800 she settled in a villa near Leipzig, using it as a residence from which she undertook further tours, including Hannover and Frankfurt (1801), Stuttgart, Leipzig, Berlin, Vienna, and Prague (1802–8; she met Goethe in 1808 in Karlsbad). Her tours contributed toward making the glass harmonica popular all over Europe.
Kirms, Franz (1750–1826): Financial administrator in Weimar. Kirms took care of the administrative side of the Weimar theater, continuing in this capacity even after Goethe left the theater. Was also keenly interested in flowers, taking care of rarities that Duke Karl August would deliver to him after journeys.
Kirsten, Johann Friedrich Ernst (1768–1820): From 1787 student in Jena, earning a diploma in 1791. From 1792 private lecturer there, from 1795 as an adjunct in the philosophical section, from 1804 lectured on pedagogy and philosophy, though he had already lectured on Spinoza in 1792–93, from ca. 1795 also within the context of a history of atheism. Founded an educational institution in Jena in 1793–94, having also lectured on the “art of pedagogy” beginning in 1794, both activities prompting him to be viewed as one of the pioneers of modern pedagogy. His involvement beginning in 1799 in vitriolic quarrels with other faculty members, including Justus Christian Loder and Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, likely prevented him from ever receiving a professorial appointment. Viewed as one of the representatives of “new skepticism.”
Klebe, Friedrich Albert (21 September 1769–1 January 1843): Physician. Studied medicine in Halle, from 1793 practicing physician in Hoym, from 1795 in Kahla near Gotha, from 1803 professor in Würzburg, from 1806 in Munich. Taught privately in Frankfurt before becoming professor of geography and statistics in Munich. Published on treating pox (1781); on Gotha and the surrounding region (1796); the Polish revolution (1799); a Rhine travelogue (1801); a travelogue on Weimar (1801), and sketches of Munich (1810); edited several journals, including the Sonntagsblatt (1801), the Rheinländische Zeitung (1802–4), the Fränkische Staats- und gelehrte Zeitung (1808), the Bavarian Nationalzeitung (1807–20), and Flora (1821–31).
Kléber, Jean-Baptiste (1753–1800): French soldier, eventually a general, who held various posts starting in 1789 after initially serving in the Austrian army. He was one of the defenders of Mainz during Caroline’s imprisonment in Königstein. Led a division in Napoleon’s army in Egypt and became commander of the entire army there when Napoleon returned (without orders) to France in 1799. Recaptured Cairo in April 1800 but was assassinated.
Klein, Georg Michael (9 April 1776–19 March 1820): Professor of philosophy. Attended both the Gymnasium and the university in Würzburg (theology), after which he worked for a time as a chaplain in Karlsstadt before becoming a professor at the Würzburg Gymnasium in November 1804. Dismissed in March 1806 along with many others after the Peace of Pressburg, through which the government of Würzburg passed to Ferdinand, former grand duke of Toscana, who pursued a policy of vehement ecclesiastical reaction. After an educational journey to the Rhine and the Netherlands, he moved to Munich, where he found a patron in Maximilian von Montgelas, receiving an appointment at the Lyceum (university college) in Bamberg in the fall of 1809, then becoming head of the Gymnasium in Regensburg in 1811. From 1818 professor of philosophy in Würzburg. His Beyträge zum Studium der Philosophie als Wissenschaft des All (1806) provides a broad presentation of Schelling’s philosophy of identity, which Klein not only defended against opponents, but also developed further in various individual works. A sincere admirer of Caroline.
Klette, Anton (1834–unknown): Librarian. Studied classical philology in Bonn under Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl and Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, the latter the brother-in-law to two of Luise Wiedemann’s (née Michaelis) daughters (Emma and Minna). Received his doctorate in 1854. From 1856 seminar librarian in Bonn. 1870–78 first full-time senior librarian at the university library in Jena, also editing the Jenaer Literatur-Zeitung (1874–79). Left office in 1878 possibly as a result of the financial disorder in the library. Virtually all traces of him disappear after 1879, though some evidence suggests he disappeared in 1896 in New York. In connection with the present edition of Caroline’s letters, he is of some significance for his indexing of Wilhelm Schlegel’s correspondence, Verzeichniss der von A.W. Schlegel nachgelassenen Briefsammlung, nebst Mittheilung ausgewählter Proben des Briefwechsels mit den Gebrüdern von Humboldt, F. Schleiermacher, B.G. Niebuhr, und J. Grimm (Bonn 1868).
Kleucker, Johann Friedrich (1749–1827): Theologian. Originally a student of Johann Gottfried Herder, 1770–73 student in Göttingen (studied under Johann David Michaelis, was also a private tutor to the children in the Michaelis home), from 1798 professor of Old Testament, New Testament, and symbolism in Kiel; representative of Biblical supranaturalism; member of the Illuminati. Author of Magikon oder das geheime System einer Gesellschaft unbekannter Philosophen unter einzelne Artikel geordnet, durch Anmerkungen und Zusätze erläutert und beurtheilt, und dessen Verwandtschaft mit älteren und neuern Mysteriologien gezeigt (Frankfurt, Leipzig 1784). Also translated the Zend-Avesta, 3 vols. (Riga 1776–78) — the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism — after the French version of Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (1731–1805), an adventurous French Orientalist whose three-volume translation of the Zend-Avesta (1771) introduced Zoroastrian texts to Europe.
Klingemann, Ernst August (1777–1831): Native of Braunschweig, though he studied law in Jena, where he heard lectures by Fichte, Schelling, and Wilhelm Schlegel. For a time one of the most popular playwrights in Germany. Author of the Nachtwachen des Bonaventura (1804), which was long thought to be a work by, among several others, Schelling. (Portrait: by Beese, ca. 1820.)
Klinger, Franz Xaver (4 December 1777–3 August 1810): Physician, though from a wealthy family in Vienna, enabling him to live a free lifestyle; also published poetry, albeit more as a dilletante. Studied in Halle from 1805, where he met both Schleiermacher and Henrik Steffens; also became aquainted with Johann Diederich Gries and the family of Friedrich Frommann in Jena. Went to Berlin before leaving for Paris in September 1806, where he remained until July 1807. He met Friedrich Schlegel in Frankfurt on his way to Paris (with a letter of recommendation from Steffens), with whom he traveled to Cologne, where he stayed a few days with Friedrich and Dorothea, and then met again in November in Paris. From mid-1807 in Switzerland and Italy before returning to Vienna on 20 October 1808 by way of Munich, where he met the Schellings as well as Bettina Brentano. Died of consumption.
Klinger, Friedrich Maximilian (1752–1831): Early friend of Goethe, studied law in Giessen in 1774–76. One of his early plays provided the name for the movement known as Storm and Stress. Prolific writer of plays early in his life, including Die Zwillinge and Sturm und Drang (both 1776), the former winning the Hamburg competition organized by Friedrich Ludwig Schröder. Spent two years with the theater company of Abel Seyler writing more conventional plays. Commissioned in the Austrian army in 1778, entered Russian service in 1780. Served in the personal entourage of Czar Paul and was patronized by Alexander I, becoming the commandant of the cadet school at St. Petersburg and head of Dorpat University. Also wrote a number of philosophical novels.
Klippstein (Klipstein), Johann Dietrich (ca. 1715–1808): Academically trained gardener and botanist in Jena. Received his doctoral degree in 1784, after which he owned the botanical garden (Klippstein’s Garden) next to the Paradies section of Jena, which included a house in which, among others, Johanne Schopenhauer, Hegel, Christian Loder, and August von Kotzebue later lived, and which Karl Ludwig von Knebel acquired in 1810. Klippstein’s botanical garden was later also known as Dietzel’s Garden. Caroline was briefly interested in renting this house during for summer of 1802 after the lease at Leutragasse 5 expired.
Klocken, Catharine Margaretha (dates unknown): Göttingen midwife who allegedly was supposed to attend Lotte Michaelis alone at the birth of Lotte’s daughter, Charlotte, in March 1793; as it turned out, the physician Friedrich Benjamin Osiander, whom the family had initially wished present but then decided not to summon, showed up quite by chance; after Lotte’s death, questions arose concerning who exactly was supposed to have supervisory status in the delivery.
Klockenbring, Sophia Rudolphina, née Alemann (Caroline variously spells the name Glockenbringk) (1760–after 1801): Childhood friend of Therese Heyne in Hannover. From 1779 wife of Friedrich Arnold Klockenbring (1742–95), chancellery secretary in Hannover; mother of Louise Sophia Hoppenstedt (1780–1804).
Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlob (1724–1803): Writer, literary theorist. Became acquainted early with Milton’s Paradise Lost and resolved to write such an epic himself. From 1745 studied in Jena, from 1746 in Halle, then gave up his studies and moved to Leipzig. The first three cantos of his religious epic, Der Messias, were published anonymously in 1748, the work on which his general fame rests even though its continuation did not quite live up to readers’ expectations. After working as a tutor and an ultimately unsuccessful meeting in Zurich with J. J. Bodmer, the translator of Paradise Lost, he was invited to Copenhagen in 1751 with a view to completing Der Messias, though difficulties prompted him to return with his patron, Count Bernstorff, to Hamburg, retaining a lifelong pension from the king of Denmark. During various travels became acquainted with Goethe, then returned to Hamburg in 1776 and essentially retired, spending much of his time with philological studies and publishing works on language and, later, political themes. Apart from his Messias, his reputation during his lifetime rested primarily on his odes, and he exercised an enormous influence on the next generation of poets, including Goethe (Klopstock’s ode Die Frühlingsfeier  is referenced in Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. From 10 June 1754 married to Margareta (Meta), née Moller, who died, however, on 28 November 1758 in childbirth. In 1791 he married Johanna Elisabeth Dimpfel, widowed von Winthem, a niece of Meta Moller. (Portrait: after a painting by Jens Juel, 1779, Gleimhaus Halberstadt.)
Klopstock, Johanna Elisabeth, née Dimpfel, widowed von Winthem (26 July 1747–19 January 1821): From 19 November 1765 married to Johann Martin von Winthem (son of Johanna Elisabeth’s mother’s stepsister), who died in 4 June 1789; they had four children, the eldest of whose wife died in childbirth during Caroline’s stay in Hamburg in April 1801. From 30 October 1791 (second marriage), Johanna Elisabeth was married to Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock, whose first wife, Meta, née Moller, was Johanna Elisabeth’s aunt, the latter’s sister, Katharina Margaretha, née Moller, being Johanna Elisabeth’s mother (her father was Johann Hinrich Dimpfel).
Klotz, Christian Adolf (1738–71): Professor in Göttingen and Halle, editor of Acta literaria and the Neue Hallische Gelehrte Zeitung, and from 1767 the Deutsche Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften; prolific author of philological and antiquarian studies, Latin satires. Involved in a heated controversy with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and the object of attacks by Johann Gottfried Herder; of a dissolute reputation, he has also been blamed for the low morals of Gottfried August Bürger, who had studied in Halle.
Knebel, Karl Ludwig von (1744–1834): Writer, translator. Studied law in Halle before entering the service of the crown prince of Prussia as an officer in 1765. He retired in 1774 and became tutor to Prince Konstantin of Weimar (1758–93), brother of Karl August, accompanying them on the journey to Paris in 1775 during which he introduced Karl August to Goethe in Frankfurt. After the prince’s premature death, he retired in 1793 with a pension and the rank of major. Although he also published some poetry, he had greater success as a translator (Propertius, Lucretius). Married the singer Louise von Rudorf in 1798 and moved to Ilmenau but returned to Jena in 1804 (1805?), remaining there the rest of his life. One of Goethe’s earliest and most intimate friends in Weimar, and a member of the inner circle in the ducal house for a time; his and Goethe’s correspondence was published in 1851. (Portrait: by Johann Joseph Schmeller.)
Knebel, Luise von, née Rudorff (1777–1852): Soprano, chamber singer, mistress of Duke Karl August of Weimar. Debuted 6 October 1791 in Weimar on the recommendation of Anna Amalie’s sister; from 1792 already listed as a chamber singer. Although her liaison with Karl August was viewed unfavorably in Weimar, on 9 February 1798 she married Karl Ludwig von Knebel in Ilmenau despite having borne Karl August a son, whom Knebel adopted.
Knigge, Adolf Franz Friedrich von (1752–96): Born on an estate near Hannover, Knigge was tutored for a time as a young man by Johann Adolf (father of Wilhelm and Friedrich) and Johann Heinrich Schlegel. From 1769–71 studied law in Göttingen before entering the service of the Hessian landgrave in Kassel. After leaving Kassel because of intrigues, he failed to secure a position at the Prussian court and was granted the title of chamberlain by Karl August of Weimar in 1776 without ever being employed at the court. From 1776 in Hanau, from 1780 in Frankfurt am Main. He was a Freemason and later member of the Illuminati, leaving the latter in 1784 just before it was proscribed. From 1791 in Bremen. Although he is best known for Über den Umgang mit Menschen (1788), a treatise on the principles of human relations that acquired the reputation—one it continues to enjoy, the expression “Knigge” still signifying “good manners”—of being the authoritative guide to behavior, politeness, and etiquette. But he also wrote several well-received, often satirical novels, including Die Verirrungen des Philosophen oder Geschichte Ludwigs von Seelberg (1787), and plays, most of which are adapted from the French. On balance Knigge was a typical representative of the late Enlightenment who advocated democratic ideals on the basis of enlightened rule by a sovereign.
Knorring, Karl Gregor von (1769–1837): Estate owner in Livonia, from 1810 second husband of Sophie Bernhardi, whose acquaintance he made while taking private lessons in Greek from her husband, August Ferdinand Bernhardi; they afterwards settled in Reval (Tallinn, Estonia).
Koberstein, August (1797–1870): Secondary school teacher in Schulpforta, author of a monumental history of German literature focused less on portrayal than on comprehensiveness and documentation, Grundrss der Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur (Leipzig 1827; 4th ed. 1847–66; 5th ed. edited by Karl Bartsch, 5 vols. 1872–75; 6 ed. 1884 ff.). (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], xxiii.)
Koch, Franziska Romana, née Gieranek (1748–96): Debuted as a ballet dancer in 1765 with the Koch company, marrying the director and dancer Friedrich Karl Koch in 1766. From 1771 they performed at the theater in Weimar, then, after it burned down, from 1775 in Gotha as a member of the court ensemble until 1777. Because Gotha had no ballet, she changed to opera, performing especially in pieces by Georg Benda, e.g., in his adaptation of Romeo and Juliet (1776). The Litteratur- und Theaterzeitung, ed. Christian August von Bertram, 2 (Berlin 1778) 167, praises her royal figure, graceful expressions, and high, clear voice.
Koch, Max (1855– 1931): Professor in Marburg and Breslau, founder of the periodical Zeitschrift für vergleichende Literatur-Gechichte, contributor to the new edition of Goedeke’s massive bibliographical lexicon (articles on Goethe and Schiller), coauthor of a widely read history of German literature (1897), also of a Shakespeare biography (1885) and an assessment of Dante’s influence on Germany (1921).
Kochen, August Heinrich Matthias (1776–1847): Theologian, philosopher, poet. 1797–1800 studied theology at Kiel, Leipzig, and Jena. After receiving his doctorate in Jena in December 1798, he attained his Habilitation in Kiel for lecturing in philosophy, passing the first state theological examination as well but preferring to become a private tutor in Altona. From 1802 diaconus in Glückstadt, from 1806 senior pastor in Wilster, from 1816 pastor at the German church in Copenhagen, from 1824 superintendent in Eutin. From 1797 contributed to Schiller’s Musenalmanach, in 1803 to Johann Bernhard Vermehren’s Musenalmanach; published his Versuch zu einer neuen Theorie der Religionsphilosophie in 1797. Also translated from the English and published numerous sermons.
Köchy, Johann Karl Theodor (1767–1843): From 1797 till 1838 professor for French and Italian at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig. Studied theology in Heimstedt while also becoming extraordinarily proficient in Italian and French. Later also taught at the royal military academy.
Köhler, Josephine, née Hackel (dates unknown): Actress with the Würzburg theater; had retired by 1810 but still returned for guest performances. (Portrait: in the role of Medea, Würzburger Theater-Almanach: auf das Jahr 1810: mit Kupfern 1 , plate following p. 168.)
Köhler, Martin Heinrich (24 July 1780–11 October 1812): Native of Neuhausen near Worms, decided to become a physician after experiencing the visits to his ill mother by physicians from Worms. From 1786 studied in Mainz, from 1798 in Jena under Hufeland, Loder, and Stark, defending his doctoral dissertation there on 18 September 1800. Thereafter traveled to various German towns, including Bamberg and Würzbur, to become acquainted with their medical facilities; spent the winter of 1800-1801 in Vienna. In 1802 returned to Bamberg by way of Prague, studying then under Adalbert Friedrich Marcus in Bamberg. From 1803 Extraordinarius professor of zoology and materia medica in Würzburg. Entered military service as a field physician when war broke out with Prussia in the autumn of 1806, directing a field hospital in Courland 70 km from Vilnius under harsh conditions, primarily for Bavarian wounded. Later director of the Royal Bavarian Hospitals in Munich. Married Friederike, née Wiebeking, youngest daughter of Karl Friedrich und Charlotte Wiebeking, acquaintances of Caroline. From April 12 again engaged as a military physician with the army. In 1812, he was awarded the gold distinguished-service award for military medical personnel by the king awarded only to those who had served in field hospitals or directly in combat. Fell ill with nervous fever, ultimately suffering from delerium, and died on 11 October 1812 in Mankowitze, Lithuania, from nervous fever as a member of the 6th (Bavarian) Corps of Napoleon’s Grande Armee during the Russian campaign.
Kolborn, Karl Joseph Hieronymus Baron von (1744–1816): Catholic theologian, suffragen bishop of Aschaffenburg, confidante of Karl Theodor von Dalberg. After studying theology at the priests’ seminary and university in Mainz, Kolborn became the tutor to the counts von Stadion, accompanying them on grand tours to Switzerland, Holland, and France. The Stadion family also assisted him in acquiring the position of canon at St. Stephan’s in Mainz, where in 1792 he became dean. From 1785 he was also canon at St. Leonhard in Frankfurt am Main. From 1788 an ecclesiastical councilor, from 1794 member of the general Mainz vicariate, from 1807 bishop (appointed by Dalberg, with whom he went to Regensburg). As such he administered the Aschaffenburg section of the former archbishopric of Mainz. Kolborn was a member of the moderate Catholic Enlightenment and maternal uncle of Karl Joseph Hieronymus Windischmann.
Köpken (Köpke), Friedrich von (1737–1811): Poet, translator, journalist (“insignificant writer,” so Schmidt , 1:710). A native of Magdeburg, Köpken studied law in Halle 1756–59, becoming a lawyer in Magdeburg in 1761. In 1760 he and August Friedrich Wilhelm Sack founded the “Learned Society,” which was later named the “Wednesday Society” and from 1775 the “Literary Society,” which soon played a significant role in Magdeburg literary life. From 1760 Köpken published literary reviews as well as modest poetry and prose pieces, largely translations, in the weekly Der Greis, and from 1792 also assembled poetic collections for his friends, which together with his best-known work, Hymnus auf Gott, contained hymns, poems, and poetic epistles and drinking songs. From 1787 he contributed to Christoph Martin Wieland’s periodical Der Teutsche Merkur and translated French comedies for the Magdeburg theater. From 1786 (1787?) father-in-law of August Hermann Niemeyer, who married his eldest daughter, Agnes Wilhelmine.
Köpke, Rudolf (1813–10 June 1870): Literary historian and historian in Berlin, friend of Ludwig Tieck who edited the latter’s works and did a biography, Ludwig Tieck. Erinnerung aus dem Leben des Dichters, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1855).
Koppe, Johann Benjamin (1750–91) and wife, Charlotte, née Conradi: Theologian. Studied in Leipzig in 1769–72, from 1772 in Göttingen, where he initially studied philology under Christian Gottlob Heyne, then theology. From 1774 professor of Greek at the Gymnasium in Mitau, from 1775 at the university in Göttingen, from 1777 as university preacher and professor of theology (Johann Gottfried Herder had turned the position down) striving to apply a sound grammatical study to biblical texts after the manner Heyne used in ancient studies. From 1778 also director of the preachers’ seminary. Although Koppe published prolifically and was loathe to leave his professorship, in 1784 he accepted an appointment in Gotha as senior pastor, senior consistory member, and general superintendent and it was with his family that Luise Michaelis made the trip to Gotha when she began her schooling at Madam Schläger’s school. Before he left, the Göttingen faculty awarded him a doctorate as well as ordination for preaching. In 1788 he then accepted a similar appointment in Hannover, where Gottfried Less succeeded him in 1791 and where among other things he improved the Hannoverian teachers’ training and contributed to the Hannoverian catechism (for use in Protestant churches and schools).
Köppen, Friedrich (1775–1858): Philosopher, originally from Lübeck, studied theology in Jena. Although he also attended lectures by Fichte and Reinhold, he did not become a follower of either. From 1796 in Göttingen, where he reworked his modest 1797 publication concerning revelation into the 1801 book concerning revelation with regard to the philosophy of Kant and Fichte, in which he defended the understanding of faith of Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. From 1807 professor in Landshut.
Koppenfels, Amalie Caroline Friederike (1771–21 April 1825): Daughter of Marie Christiane and Johann Friedrich von Koppenfels (1737–1811), chancellor and historiographer in Eisenach; from January 1803 wife of Heinrich Meyer . The couple, who initially resided in Jena, then Weimar, remained childless. After the marriage, Heinrich Meyer ceased living in Goethe’s house, where he had resided since coming to Weimar in November 1791.
Körner, Anna Maria Jakobine (Minna), née Stock (1762–1843): Daughter of the Leipzig engraver Johann Michael Stock; sister of Dora Stock, and from 7 August 1785 wife of Christian Gottfried Körner. She, Christian Gottfried Körner, Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, and Dora Stock sent the letter of admiration to the struggling Schiller in June 1784 that eventually resulted in Schiller moving to Leipzig in April 1787. (Portrait: by Dora Stock; Körnermuseum in Dresden.)
Körner, Christian Gottfried (1756–1831): Lawyer, writer. From 1772 studied philology, philosophy, law, public finance, mathematics, and technology in Leipzig and Göttingen, receiving his masters in 1778 and doctorate of law in 1779 (both in Leipzig). Lectured for a time on natural law, political economy, and technology, and was from 1781 a legal advisor for the consistory. Became acquainted with Schiller in 1784, who lived with him in 1785 after Körner,Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, and their fiancées, Minna and Dora Stock, issued the invitation, helping Schiller out of an awkward financial situation. In 1785 Körner and his wife, Minna (Anna Maria Jakobine, née Stock, a watercolor painter who also tried her hand at porcellan painting) moved to Dresden, where his house became a meeting place for the likes of Goethe, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Heinrich von Kleist, the Schlegels, and Novalis. Körner occasionally contributed to Schiller’s periodicals. From 1815 in Prussian service in Berlin. One of Schiller’s most valued friends and his first biographer. As brother-in-law to Dora Stock, however, Körner understandably took a dim view of Huber’s decision to (essentially) abandon Dora in favor of Therese Huber, not least because of the dissimulation in which Huber apparently engaged with Dora during the period he was in Mainz. As a result, Huber seems to have become distrustful of Friedrich Schlegel in Leipzig in 1793, the latter being on good terms at the time with Körner. (Portrait: in Gustav Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur, 2nd ed. [Marburg 1895], 308.)
Körner, Emma Sophia (1788–1815): Painter. Received her training in part from her aunt, the painter Dora Stock, who lived with the family from 1785 and left behind a portrait or her niece. She later received training in oils from the painter Anton Graff (1736–1813), who had painted portraits or her parents and was acquainted with her aunt. Did portraits of Schiller during his later years, and of her brother, Theodor, who died in 1813 in the Wars of Liberation (her parents’ home was a politically undesirable place to be seen during French rule). She visited the grave of her brother in Mecklenburg in 1815 with her parents and wanted to have the grave opened, but they refused. She died four weeks later, and her parents and aunt left Dresden later that year. (Self-portrait; Körnermuseum, Dresden.)
Körner, Josef (1888–1950): Literary historian, one of the most gifted epistolary editors in German studies in the twentieth century. Studied German literary history in Vienna and Prague, including under Jakob Minor, thereafter working as a secondary-school teacher (served in World War I 1914–18; educational trips 1920–22), from 1919 Gymnasium professor in Prague. Specialized in the early Romantic school, developing what has been called “virtually a detective-like sixth sense for hitherto lost primary sources, which he then edited, documented, and annotated with extraordinary attention to detail and a positivistic obsession with detail.” Anti-Semitic considerations prevented him from attaining a position at the university in Prague and even from having his inaugural dissertation accepted, though the situation did mobilize criticism from leading literary scholars at the time. Even after his inaugural dissertation was eventually accepted, the anti-Semitic department head saw to it that his defense failed. Only intervention by the Czech ministry of education righted this situation, with Körner being admitted as a private lecturer in 1930 after discovering in Madame de Staël’s chateau in Coppet, Switzerland, ca. 3000 letters constituting Wilhelm Schlegel’s correspondence from the years 1804–12, later published as Krisenjahre der Frühromantik, though the political situation prevented publication of the third (commentary) volume, which was not published until 1958. In early 1939, Körner’s university teaching authorization was revoked because he was a Jew; he worked as a private scholar until being incarcerated in the Theresienstadt concentration camp in late 1944. After the war, however, he suffered because of being German, and supported himself by, among other things, selling off his extraordinary manuscript collection until the Czech government granted him a pension. He died while working on the commentary volume to Krisenjahre, which the publishing company finished for him posthumously. His literary estate is housed in the university in Bonn. (Source: NDB.) (Portrait: in Ernst Behler, Friedrich Schlegel in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten [Reinbek 1966], 158; also as frontispiece to Josef Körner, Philologische Schriften und Briefe, ed. Ralf Klausnitzer [Göttingen 2001].)
Körner, Theodor (1791–1813): Son of Christian Gottfried Körner, expelled from the university in Leipzig because of a duel, went to Vienna in 18891 as a playwright, from March 1813 in the military (“free corps”), killed in action in Mecklenburg in 1813 during the Wars of Liberation, gained fame later for his patriotic poetry, which his father published in 1814.
Korsakov, Alexander (1753–1840): Russian general put in command of a large force sent to drive the French from Switzerland in early 1799, though he was defeated by André Masséna at Zurich in Septemer 1799 while waiting for the army of Alexander Suvorov.
Körte, Wilhelm (1776–1846): Literary historian. From 1796 studied law in Halle but was more drawn to literature and the arts. Completed his studies in 1799 and was to become a teacher in Halberstadt at the humanitarian school for whose establishment Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, his great uncle, had left financial support. Arguments arose concerning the nature of the school, however, and the Prussian state ultimately was awarded the rights to the earmarked money and the obligation to establish the school in the context of the Halberstadt Gymnasium. Körte received a sum of mony in return, albeit without being permitted to participate in the school. Hence he spent the rest of his life, unencumbered, in literary pursuits. Married the daughter of Friedrich August Wolf. He had control over the literary estates of both Gleim and Wolf. Edited the Briefwechsel zwischen Gleim, Heinse und J. Müller (Correspondence between Gleim, Heinse, and J. Müller) (1804) and Briefe deutscher Gelehrten aus Gleims Nachlass (Letters of German scholars from Gleim’s literary estate) (1806).
Kosegarten, Ludwig Theoboul (baptized Ludwig Gotthard, but took Theoboul as his middle name) (1758–1818): Pastor, theological writer. From 1775 studied theology in Greifswald but had to seek employment as a private house tutor for financial reasons from 1777. Passed his examination in 1781, from 1785 rector at a boys’ school in Wolgast (pupils included Philipp Otto Runge), receiving his master’s degree the same year. Ordained in 1792 and became pastor in Altenkirchen on the island of Rügen, where he remained until 1808, writing accounts that drew attention to both him and the island. From 1808 professor of theology in Greifswald. Wrote poems, variously imitating Ossian, Edward Young, and Friedrich Gottlob Klopstock, also a tragedy in the fashion of the Storm and Stress writers, and two epics in hexameters. Around 1801 he began a series of romantic pieces in prose in which he intended to portray the various types of love. Ida von Plessen (1800), takes place on Rügen and portrays the love of nature (subsequent pieces illustrate religious love, the love of one’s home, and unfinished pieces were to illustrate the love experienced by a bride, a child’s love, and the love associated with friendship). (Portrait: A. Krausse.)
Köthe, Friedrich August (30 July 1781–23 October 1850): Theologian, writer. Studied in Leipzig from 1800, where he and his childhood friend K. F. G. Wetzel met Gotthilf Heinrich Schubert (Schubert describes Köthe in his autobiography as a brotherly friend who remained loyal his entire life). From 1803 an assistant pastor in Leipzig, where he also attained his masters degree. From 1806 in Dresden, where he was eventually joined by both Schubert and Wetzel, both of whom were now married. From 1810 professor in Jena, from 1812 also with preaching duties at the municipal church there, from 1817 (attaining his doctorate) full professor. Married Sylvia Ziegesar in 1817. Health problems prompted to accept a pastoral position in Allstädt (ADB).
Kotzebue, August von (1761–1819): Born in Weimar, studied law in Jena and Duisburg, completing his studies in 1780. Seems to have had an amorous relationship with Lotte Michaelis in 1781 during the latter’s stay at a boarding school in Gotha. In late 1781, Kotzebue became secretary to the governor-general of St. Petersburg, a certain General Bauer, beginning a long association with the Russian government. After Bauer’s death in 1783, the empress Catherine appointed him an administrator and assessor in the court of appeal in Reval, then ennobled him in 1785, after which he occupied high office in Estonia. From February 1785 married to Friederike Julia Dorothea, née von Essen. In early 1785, however, he did make a trip to northern Germany to do research in the archive and library at Wolfenbüttel and Hannover (Caroline alludes to the possibility of his visiting Göttingen–and thus her sister Lotte–in her letter to Lotte from Clausthal in early 1785). During this time he was already publishing novels and plays, contributing to the Journal des Luxus und der Moden from 1788. From 1787 ill, from 1790 on leave in Germany to recover; his wife died at the end of November 1790 from childbirth complications, during which time he was in Paris, returning then to Germany via Mainz, where he meets or at least corresponds with Lotte Michaelis again. From 1794 married to Christine Gertrud, née Krusenstjern (1769–22 Auguste 1803). In 1798 he became court theater director in Vienna; intrigues among the actors forced his departure. He returned to Weimar, where, however, he eventually had a severe falling-out with Goethe. On the journey back to St. Petersburg, he was arrested at the Russian frontier and incarcerated in Siberia before being reinstated by the emperor Paul and becoming director of the German theater in St. Petersburg (his incarceration and return to Germany providing the subject matter for a satire by Wilhelm Schlegel). After Paul, his patron, was assassinated, he returned to Weimar but still had trouble in society and thus moved to Berlin, where he edited the periodical Der Freimütige with Garlieb Merkel and published an Almanach dramatischer Spiele (1803–20). During the French occupation he returned to Russia, publishing articles against Napoleon. He reentered Russian service in 1813 and in 1816 was appointed to the department of foreign affairs, returning to Weimar in 1817 as an informant to Alexander I. His activities were detested by liberal Germans and students, and in 1819 he was assassinated by the student Karl Ludwig Sand in Mannheim, providing Metternich with an excuse to issue the Carlsbad Decrees curtailing various freedoms (e.g., of the press). A prolific writer and especially dramatist, though also a plagiarist, Kotzebue enjoyed enormous success especially with his comedies and was the most frequently performed playwright of the time. (Portrait: ca. 1800, by Julius Heinsius.)
Kotzebue, Anna Christine (Christina), née Krüger (8 July 1736–31 January 1828): Native of Braunschweig, from 12 May 1757 wife of Saxon-Weimar legation counselor and administrator Levin Karl Christian Kotzebue (1727–61); mother of August von Kotzebue.
Kotzebue, Christine (Christina, Christel) Gertrud, née Krusenstjern (Krusenstern, Krusenstiern) (1769–22 Auguste 1803): From 1794 second wife of August von Kotzebue, whom she married in Reval, Estonia. She was the daughter of the Russian captain Adolph von Krusenstiern and Anna Magdalena, née von Brümmer.
Kotzebue, Friederike Julia Dorothea von, née von Essen (1763–26 November 1790): Daughter of the Russian general Reinhold Wilhelm von Essen and Eleonora von Sass in Reval; from February 1784 first wife of August von Kotzebue, whom she married in Estonia. Died from complications in childbirth.
Krahe, Peter Joseph (1758–1840): Architect. Initially intended to be an artist, attending his father’s art academy in Düsseldorf and becoming a professor there in 1780. From 1782 in Italy, and in 1783 he decided to switch professions prompted by the acceptance of several of his sample plans. From 1790 head of the architectural administration in Koblenz, though had difficulty during the French occupation, also working in road construction and as a tax collector. 1803–6 headed the architectural administration in the Duchy of Braunschweig with the title of finance Rath (whence the acquaintance with Luise Wiedemann), from 1806—during the French occupationn—worked on Baroque castle that was to be King Jeromes residence. From 1814 again head of Braunschweig’s architectural administration.
Kraus, Christian Jakob (1753–1807): Königsberg philosopher and economist during the late Enlightenment, associated esp. with disseminating the thought of Adam Smith through his position as the university. Also acquainted with Kant and Johann Georg Hamann.
Kraus, Georg Melchior (1737–1806): Painter, head of art school in Weimar. Studied under Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Elder and 1761–66 in Paris. Traveled in Switzerland and north Germany before becoming acquainted with Goethe in 1774 in Bad Ems and coming to Weimar at the initiative of the von Stein family. From 1776 head of the ducal Free Drawing School. Traveled with Goethe to the Harz in 1784, to Mainz in 1793, and to northern Italy in 1795. Painted landscapes around Weimar and genre pieces (including the famous “evening circle” of the duchess Anna Amalia) as well as portraits (e.g., of Goethe in 1776). From 1786 co-editor of the Journal des Luxus und der Moden with Friedrich Justin Bertuch. Died as a result of abuse by French soldiers after the battles of Jena. (Portrait: from Franz Neubert, Goethe und sein Kreis, 2nd ed. [Leipzig 1919], 142.)
Krause, Konrad Wilhelm (dates unknown): Braunschweig merchant and art collector, seller of fine English porcelain, lacquered tables, coffee trays, and other wares; from 1797 owner of the Berkau estate.
Kraut, Wilhelm Theodor (1800–73): From 1819 student in Göttingen, 1820 in Berlin, 1821 back in Göttingen, earning his doctorate in 1822; 1823–28 library administrator, from 1828 professor (extraordinariusj) and from 1836 full law professor in Göttingen.
Kries, Friedrich Christian (18 October 1768–29 May 1849): Mathematician, native of Thorn in West Prussia, though his father was a native of Gotha. A talented student in ancient languages, he studied theology and philology from 1786 in Leipzig, though also philosophy and mathematics. From 1787 in Göttingen, where he abandoned theology and concentrated on the languages of classical antiquity, including under Christian Gottlob Heyne, though also studied physics under Georg Christoph Lichtenberg. From 1789 taught a variety of subjects at the Gymnasium in Gotha, from 1801 also at the pedagogical school there, not retiring until 1840, after which, however, he continued to teach at the latter school (ADB). (Portrait: Bildnisse der jetzt in Gotha lebenden Philologen, gez. und lithogr. von Emil Jacobs [Gotha 1824]; courtesy of Pastor Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, Archiv der schleswig-thüringischen Familie Jacobs.)
Krüdener, Barbara Juliane, Baroness von, née von Vietinghoff (1764–1824): Married in 1782, divorced in 1796, 1801 in Coppet with Madame de Staël, later influenced by Pietism and mysticism, also influencing Czar Alexander I. Her novel Valérie (1803) was translated into German in 1804.
Krüll, Balthasar Philipp (21 June 1765–7 November 1833): Schelling’s publisher in Landshut. From Kellheim on the Danube River in Bavaria. After his elementary education in the classics and music, Krüll began working in the family business and studying mathematics. A couple of years later, his father moved to Ingolstadt and bought the Grätz publishing company; several university professors advised the young Krüll to become better acquainted with contemporary literature and journalism as preparation for his career. When Bavaria transferred the university from Ingolstadt to Landshut in 1800, Krüll started his own publishing company. A loan enabled Krüll to begin publishing more extensive and complicated works in 1802. From 1803 married to Margaretha, née Rasser. His business went well enough to enable him to buy his own house in 1805 and to engage in generous charity work in his community. His declining health prompted him to sell his company in July 1830.
Kuhlau, Friedrich (1786–1832): German-Danish composer. To escape conscription into the French army while studying music in Hamburg, he fled to Copenhagen in 1810, working first as a flautist, thereafter, on the basis of his operas Die Räubergur and Elisa, becoming a court composer and professor.
Kühn, Christiane Wilhelmine Sophie von (17 March 1783–19 March 1797): Friedrich von Hardenberg’s (Novalis) first fiancée. Stepdaughter of Captain Johann Rudolf von Rockenthien and daughter of Sophie Wilhelmine von Kühn. Hardenberg, twenty-two at the time, met the twelve-year-old in November 1794 in Grüningen near Tennstedt, remarking later to his brother that this “quarter hour” had decided the course of his entire life. They became unofficially engaged on her thirteenth birthday, in 1795. In November of that year she became seriously ill but seemed to have recovered. After three operations between May and July 1796, she died on 19 March 1797. Novalis fell into a deep depression and variously commemorated her in verse, especially in his Hymnen an die Nacht. (Contemporary portrait by an unknown artist.)
Kuhn, Friedrich Adolf (Adolph) (1774–1844): Lawyer, poet, translator. Studied law in Wittenberg 1793–96, becoming a lawyer in Dresden. Had contact with Friedrich von Hardenberg, contributed to Theodor Hell’s Abend-Zeitung. From 1797 attended lectures by Fichte and Schelling in Jena and was generally inclined toward the new Romantic movement. Published a well-received translation of L. Camoen’s Portuguese epic, The Lusiads in 1807.
Kunze, Johann Friedrich (1755–1803): Leipzig Merchant and head of an English earthenware business there, brother-in-law of the publisher Georg Joachim Göschen (Kunze’s sister Karoline married Göschen in 1788, whence Kunze also made Schiller’s acquaintance), friend of Christian Gottfried Körner; from 1782 married to Sophie Wilhelmine, née Wurfbain (1758–88), after whose death Körner, apparently unaware of the tacit agreement of betrothal between Dora Stock and Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, voiced his idea of playing matchmaker between Kunze and Dora Stock (to Schiller, 15 April 1790; Leonard Simpson, Correspondence of Schiller with Körner, 3 vol. [London 1849] 2:90–91): “As Kunze is a widower, his old attachment for Dorchen may revive. Did the idea ever cross your mind? Heaven created them for each other. Dorchen would make him the happiest of men; and she knows him so well that he never could make her unhappy. If you think the idea a good one, tell me how I can be of service in maturing it.” Nothing came of the idea; Kunze never remarried, and Dora Stock remained unmarried.