Dahlmann, Friedrich Christoph (1785–1860): Historian, originally a philologist, studied from 1802 in Copenhagen, from 1804 in Halle, though financial problems after the death of his father prompted his return to Copenhagen, where he pursued private studies. 1809 in Dresden, where he became acquainted with Heinrich von Kleist. Attained his doctorate in 1810, from 1812 lecturer in history in Kiel, from 1813 professor, where in the home of Luise Wiedemann, née Michaelis, he met and then in 1817 married Julie Hegewisch. Later a professor in Göttingen and Bonn. One of the famous “Göttingen 7,” a group of Göttingen professors (besides Dahlmann himself, the leader: Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht, Georg Heinrich August Ewald, Georg Gottfried Gervinus, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, and Wilhelm Weber) who in 1837 protested against the constitution in the Kingdom of Hannover (George III’s son Ernest Augustus, whom Luise had known during his student days in Göttingen in the late 1780s) and were promptly dismissed, some even being expelled from the territory. In 1829 he married Luise, née von Horn (1800–56), and in October 1842, after his dismissal in Göttingen, he was appointed to a professorship in Bonn by King Frederick William IV of Prussia. Quite apart from his association with the Wiedemann family and Göttingen, he is still remembered for his history of Denmark (1840–43) and bibliography of German history (1830).
Dahme, Georg Christoph (1737–1803): Initially a court chaplain in Hannover, his hometown, then cabinet chaplain to the queen in London, where he married Friederike Sophie Luise Best (born 1757), daughter of Wilhelm Philipp Best, whose wife was a sister of Henriette Philippine Elisabeth Böhmer (Georg Ludwig Böhmer’s wife). From 1767 pastor of the Hamburg congregation at Trinity Lane in London. Returned to Germany in the 1770s. From 1776 general superintendant in Clausthal, from 1792 at the church of St. Mary in Celle.
Dalayrac (d’Alayrac), Nicolas (1753–1809): French composer, best known for his opéra-comiques. His earliest works were violin duets, string trios and quartets, but his main fame was as a prolific composer of operas for the Comédie-Italienne (later remamed the Opéra-comique).
Dalberg, Karl Theodor von (1744–1817): Followed family tradition by entering the service of the imperial church, becoming cathedral canon in Würzburg (1753), Mainz (1754), Worms (1758), and Trier (1776). Studied law in Heidelberg before working in the administration of Mainz. Became prince-electorate governor of Erfurt, during which time he became acquainted with Schiller and was a close acquaintance of Wilhelm and Caroline von Humboldt (whence Caroline’s notion that Humboldt might help secure her release from Königstein). Advocate of the concept of the national church and of the Catholic Enlightenment. On 5 June 1787 elected heir-designate (coadjutant, as which Caroline often refers to him) to the electoral archbishopric of Mainz, but the French Revolution prevented his accession (on 18 June 1787 also elected coadjutant of the Bishop of Worms, and on 18 June 1788 of the Bishop of Konstanz). After France took the town of Mainz in 1798, Aschaffenburg became the seat of the administration of the archbishopric of Mainz itself, and in 1803 the principality of Aschaffenburg was created for Dalberg as the final Prince Elector of Mainz and Chancellor of the older Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, with Aschaffenburg itself as the capital. From 1802 Dalberg had become the last reigning archbishop and prince elector of Mainz. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Napoleon elevated him to the primate of the Confederation of the Rhine. Dismissed and exiled in 1813 after Napoleon’s fall but then allowed by the allies to remain archbishop of Regensburg. (Portrait ca. 1791; Gleimhaus Halberstadt.)
Dalberg, Wolfgang Heribert von (1750–1806): From 1778 manager of the national theater in Mannheim, though originally studied law in Göttingen, where he then worked at the Royal Historical Institute. From 1771 worked in various administrative positions in Mannheim, in which capacity he developed the idea of establishing a national theater there. The first premiere was performed in October 1779, and some of Schiller’s early plays were performed there, Schiller himself even receiving a contract at the theater in 1784. (Portrait: after 1791 by an unknown artist; Reiss-Museum, Kunst- und Stadtgeschichtliche Sammlungen.)
D’Alton, Joseph Wilhelm Eduard (1772–1840): Former lover of Dorothea Veit in Berlin, alleged model for the character of Florentin in Dorothea’s novel of the same name, and apparently a love interest in the lives of Henriette and Recha Mendelssohn as well. Married Friederike Buch from Frankfurt am Main in 1808, though their son, Johann Samuel Eduard, the later professor of anatomy in Halle, was born on 17 July 1803 in St. Goar while Friederike was married to her cousin. Eduard a’Alton fought in a Polish legion against Napoleon in Italy, traveled to America, then reappeared in Berlin just as Dorothea Veit divorced Simon Veit. He became adept at drawing and engraving during travels in Italy and elsewhere, was also interested in zoology and osteology. Spent 1809–10 residing in the park in Tiefurt (the property of Karl August of Weimar), later moving to Würzburg and traveling further in France, England, and Spain. From 1818 professor of archaeology, natural history, and art history in Bonn and an acquaintance of Wilhelm Schlegel there. See also the supplementary appendix Eduard d’Alton in Dorothea’s Florentin and as Wilhelm Schlegel’s colleague. (Portrait by Johann Joseph Schmeller; Goethe-Nationalmuseum.)
Dannecker, Johann Heinrich (1758–1841): Court sculptor in Stuttgart, his hometown. Also studied in Paris and Rome, returning to Stuttgart in 1790, wehre he became a professor at the Karlsschule, continuing to teach privately after that school was closed in 1794. From 1829 director of the newly established art academy in Stuttgart, though in later years plagued by mental illness. Did busts of Schiller (1793, 1805).
Dante Alighieri (1265–1321): Italian poet from Florence. Best known for his Divine Comedy, a culmination of the medieval world-view of the afterlife which is generally considered the most important epic poem of Italian literature and as one of the greatest works of world literature. The Romantic circle in Jena, including especially Wilhelm even during the early 1790s, were intensely interested in Dante’s work and his position within their overall view of world literary history.
Danton, Georges-Jacques (1759–94): Extremist French revolutionary leader, minister of justice after the fall of the monarchy in 1792, also voting for the death of the king as a member of the National convention; president of the Jacobin club from March 1793 and member of the Committee of Public Safety, making him virtual head of the government. Overthrown by Robespierre during the Reign of Terror.
Dassdorf (Dasdorf), Karl Wilhelm (1750–1812): Librarian in Dresden. Studied in Leipzig, then 1773–75 private tutor in the house of Count von Ferber, who helped him secure a position in 1775 at the Dresden public library, where he worked until his death. Acquainted with Lessing, also published occasional poetry, reviews, a collection of J. Winckelmann’s letters (Winckelmanns Briefe an seine Freunde [Dresden 1777–80]), and a travel guide to Dresden (Beschreibung der vorzüglichsten Merkwürdigkeiten der Churfürstlichen Residenzstadt Dresden und einiger seiner umliegenden Gegenden [Dresden 1782]).
Daub, Karl (1765–1836): Protestant theologian and philosopher, from 1795 professor in Heidelberg, published on speculative theology, influenced successively by Kant, Schelling, and Hegel. Unlike Schelling, Daub declined an appointment in Würzburg in 1803.
Davout, Louis-Nicolas (1770–1823): One of Napoleon’s Marshals of the Empire. Entered the army at 17, serving in Belgium, Luxembourg, and in the Rhine campaign of 1797. Fought with Napoleon in Egypt, after which he was made a general of division, and in 1804 a marshal. Distinguished himself in Germany in 1805, especially at Austerlitz, then defeating the Duke of Braunschweig at Auerstedt in 1806. Also engaged in the campaign in the east, at Eylau, then in 1809 at Eckmühl and Wagram. Also with Napoleon in Russia, though his disgraceful conduct in and treatment of Hamburg, of which he was made governor, led to his temporary retirement. In general known for his hard and unrelenting, sometimes cruel demeanor as a military commander. Remained in Paris during the Waterloo campaign, prompting criticism of Napoleon. Later reconciled to the monarchy.
Degligny, Monsieur (dates unknown): Actor with the Bursay French theater company in Braunschweig. Was said to be fat and have a less than sonorous voice, making it difficult for him to play “noble fathers.”
Delbrück, Johann Friedrich Ferdinand (1772–1848): Philologist, philosopher. From 1790 studied in Halle, largely under Friedrich August Wolf. From 1794 educator in Berlin, then in Hamburg. Received his doctorate in Halle in 1797 and in the same year took a position as a teacher at a Gymnasium in Berlin. Contributor to the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung and the Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung. From 1809 professor in Königsberg, from 1816 in Düsseldorf, and from 1818 professor of literary criticism and philosophy at the newly founded university in Bonn, where Wilhelm Schlegel also received an appointment. Works include Über die Humanität (1797).
De Luc, Jean-André (1727–1817): Swiss geologist and meteorologist, ranked among the first geologists of his age. He moved to England in 1773, was made a fellow of the Royal Society in the same year, and received the appointment of reader to Queen Charlotte, which he continued to hold for forty-four years. His principal geological work, Lettres physiques et morales sur les montagnes et sur l’histoire de la terre et de l’homme, first published in 1778, and in a more complete form in 1779, was dedicated to Queen Charlotte.
Demidov, Count Nicolai Nikitich (1773–1828): At fifteen years of age inherited an industrial empire from his father (metal-processing plants) from his father, though he squandered so much of it that the government assigned wards to him. In 1797 he married Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganoff (1779–1818); while living in Paris as a foreign service officer, he initially supported Napoleon but was recalled in 1812, settling in Moscow. Financed his own infantry regiment against Napoleon’s Russian campaign. A extraordinarily successful businessman after the Wars of Liberation, essentially doubling his wealth. Eventually Russian ambassador to Tuscany, acquiring land north of Florence, where he had a palace built (Villa di San Donato), also establishing a theater, a school, and an art collection. He and his wife separated after the birth of their second son in 1813, she returning to Paris.
Denner, Balthasar (1685–1749): German painter; though quite popular and appreciated during his lifetime, during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century his portraiture was criticized — by, among others, Wilhelm Schlegel and Hegel — for its slavish inclination for excessively naturalistic depiction void of true spirit and artistry.
Descartes, René (Cartesius) (1596–1650): French mathematician and philosopher. Introduced the system of coordinates to geometry and demonstrated how to describe a curve in an equation, thereby becoming the father of analytic geometry. Also introduced powers expressed as superscripts. Initiated the mechanistic view of the world.
Diderot, Denis (1715–84): French philosopher, encyclopedist, novelist, playwright, art critic. From 1745 director of the monumental Encyclopédie, an encyclopedic dictionary of the knowledge of the day, including the arts, sciences, and trades, which embodied the philosophical spirit of the age, including a skeptical view of religion (the volumes in which he was involved appeared between 1751 and 1772).
Dieterich, Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1761–1837): Student, publisher, and bookseller in Gotha and Göttingen. Eldest son of Johann Christian Dieterich. Married Lotte Michaelis on 3 June 1792; second wife Jeanette (Luise Wiedemann spells it Janette) Christiane Friedhelm from Gotha. Directed the publishing company from 1800 till 1827.
Dieterich, Johann Christian (1722–1800): Publisher and founder of one of the oldest publishing company in Germany, the Dieterich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Trained in business, worked as a silk merchant in Berlin, took over the publishing company of J. P. Mevius in Gotha in 1752 after marrying the latter’s daughter, Christine Elisabeth in 1749. From 1756 published the Almanach de Gotha, which established itself as a respected genealogical handbook. Opened a branch in Göttingen in 1760, receiving the privilege of operating as a university bookseller in 1765 and adding a printing shop in 1770. In 1776 he sold the company in Gotha to Karl Wilhelm Ettinger, who then ran it under his own name, and moved to Göttingen. Published the works of Gottfried August Bürger and Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, with the latter of whom he was an extremely close friend, working in the same house. From 1770 published the influential Göttinger Musenalmanach, the organ of the Göttinger Hainbund edited by Heinrich Christian Boie, Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter, and Bürger. Also the father-in-law of Lotte Michaelis, whose marriage to his son he initially vehemently opposed.
Dietrich, Carl Friedrich Jacob († late 1793): Physician in Lucka who initially attended Caroline during her pregnancy with Wilhelm Julius Krantz and in whose house she and Auguste lived between August 1793 and late February 1794. He died just before she gave birth on 3 November 1793; the young physician Johann Hein4rich Königsdörffer attended at the birth.
Dieze, Anna Sophia Friderika (Fiekchen) (born 1767): Daughter of Göttingen professor of philology Johann Andreas Dieze and Johann Christiane Dieze; one of Therese Heyne’s earliest childhood playmates (cf. Ludwig Geiger, Therese Huber. 1764 bis 1829. Leben und Briefe einer deutschen Frau [Stuttgart 1901] 11; Therese Huber Briefe 1:830); see also Caroline’s undated letter to Lotte Michaelis in 1784 (letter 46).
Dieze, Johann Andreas (1729–85): From 1756 lecturer, from 1764 to 1770 associate professor, 1770–84 full professor of philology and librarian in Göttingen, from 1784 professor of literary history and librarian in Mainz; associated with Lessing through a mutual interest in Spain. Husband of Johanna Christian Dieze, né Penther, and father of Fiekchen Dieze. (Portrait: Carl Friedrich Schubert, Sammlung von Schattenrissen, der Professoren, Studenten, schönen Geistern, auch einigen eleganten Göttinger Piecen — die beygefügten Anmerkungen sind wahr und nicht zur Belustigung sondern zu meiner Erinnerung beygesetzt, Göttingen, d. 20ten Juny 1779 — nec temere nec timide.)
Dieze, Johanna Christiane, née Penther († after 1794): Wife of Professor Johann Andreas Dieze, mother of Fiekchen Dieze (Therese Huber Briefe 1:779).
Dilthey, Wilhelm (1833–1911): Philospher, literary historian, from 1882 professor in Berlin, founder of an experientially based understanding of culture and intellectual phenomena. Scholar of Romanticism and esp. Schleiermacher, attempting to develop what might be called a “critique of historical reason” with an eye on articulating a cognitive theory applicable to the humanities. Published an extraordinarily influential biography of Schleiermacher as well as the first comprehensive edition of Schleiermacher’s letters (Aus Schleiermacher’s Leben: In Briefen, 4 vols. ed. Ludwig Jonas and Wilhelm Dilthey [Berlin 1860–63]). (Portrait: by unknown photographer.)
Diogenes of Sinope (ca. 412–323 BCE): Founder of the cynic school in Greek philosophy, advocating extreme frugality and renunciation as the ultimate wisdom in life, accessible also through freedom from convention and institutions and through practicing poverty. (Portrait: Raphael, The School of Athens, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City; Caroline refers to a copper engraving of this piece.)
Dittersdorf, Karl Ditters von (1739–99): Composer. Born in Vienna, Dittersdorf began violin instruction when he was seven, then entered the service of Prince Joseph von Sachsen-Hildburghausen in 1751 as a page, playing violin in the court orchestra. After a trip to Italy in 1763, in 1765 he succeeded Haydn as orchestra director for the bishop of Grosswardein. In 1769 he accepted the same position for the prince bishop of Breslau, also becoming theater director, remaining till the bishop’s death in 1795. Ennobled in 1773. Composed numerous singspiels and operas in the Viennese tradition, including some of the libretti, becoming one of the founders of the German comic opera.
Docen, Bernhard Joseph (1782–1828): Initially studied medicine, then philology, including in Jena, from 1803 worked on the writer Hans Sachs. Johann Christoph von Aretin secured him a position at the state library in Munich, where from 1806 he was an administrator, from 1811 its curator and also an adjunct member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Docen took full advantage of library’s manuscripts of older German literature it had acquired through secularization.
Dodd, William (1729–77): Preacher and king’s chaplain in London whose life Georg Forster described in Leben Dr. Wilhelm Dodds (Berlin 1779). In February 1777, Dodd forged a bond for £4200 in the name of his former pupil, Lord Chesterfield, to clear his debts. A banker accepted the bond in good faith, and lent him money on the strength of it. The ruse was discovered, and despite a campaign to have him pardoned, he was hanged on 27 June 1777, the last person to be hanged on the notorious Tyburn gallows for forgery. (Charles J. Rzepka has published an electronic edition of Dodd’s Thoughts in Prison, in Five Parts, which Dodd wrote while awaiting execution in Newgate prison.)
Döderlein, Johann Christoph (1746–92): Jena theologian. From 1764 studied in theology in Altdorf, from 1766 deacon in Windsheim, from 1772 professor of theology in Altdorf, from 1782 professor in Jena, worked especially on producing a reliable text of the Hebrew Bible (1793; whence his designation as the “Melanchton of his age”), also publishing the Theologische Bibliothek. Advocated an examination of the scriptures through reason with the goal of harmonizing the two. Allegedly not particularly popular among his colleagues in Jena. First husband of Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer’s wife, Rosine Eleonore, née von Eckardt, whence Niethammer inherited the house at Leutragasse 5.
Döderlein, Ludwig Christoph Wilhelm (1791–1863): Classical philologist, eventually a professor in Erlangen. Born in the house at Leutragasse 5 in Jena, son of Eleonore Rosine Döderlein (later Niethammer) from her first marriage. From 1816 married to Therese Hufeland, daughter of Gottlieb and Sophie (née Wiedemann) Hufeland. Instead of accompanying his parents to Würzburg in 1804, he went instead to live with a paternal uncle in Windshwim, thereafter attending Schulpforte.
It was Ludwig Döderlein’s visit in 1858 to the orthopedic clinic that had in the meantime been established in the rear-edifice apartment at Leutragasse 5, where Caroline had lived almost sixty years earlier, that helped identify that building as Caroline’s former residence (Eduard Helmke, Bericht über die Orthopaedisch-gymnastische Heilanstalt in Jena [Leipzig 1863], 2):
One afternoon while the 300th Jubilee of the Jena university was being celebrated on 15, 16, and 17 August 1858, for which thousands had come from near and far, Herr Hofrath Prof. Dr. Döderlein from Erlangen honored me with a visit to my orthopedic clinic. He told me that he had been born in this house and was thus quite pleased with the elegant arrangements and furnishings of the main therapy hall. After carefully examining my healing methods and querying several patients concerning their earlier conditions and successful cures, he suddenly turned cordially and yet astonished to me and said, “But nothing here is implemented violently or by force; instead, the patients genuinely enjoy their cure! — Oh! why did you not establish your institution 20 years ago! Then I would have brought my daughter to you for a cure, and she would still be living today. When she was a 17-year-old girl, plagued by two lateral spinal curvatures, I took her to the H… Orthopaedic Clinic. — After lying for two long years on a stretch bed and yet experiencing not a trace of improvement, she was subjected to forced pressure and screws, and then the next morning — my child lay dead on the stretch bed.” The venerable old man with silver hair had tears in his eyes as he related this story, and as profoundly as my own heart was moved by his pain and sorrow, just as profoundly was I indignant at such inhuman and execrable procedures.
Döderlein, Rosine Eleonore, née von Eckardt (1770–1832): Wealthy widow of Johann Christoph Döderlein, then, from 1797, wife of Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer; daughter of Johann Ludwig von Eckardt (1732–1800), first law professor in Jena; her son Ludwig Döderlein married Therese Hufeland, daughter of Gottlieb and Sophie (née Wiedemann) Hufeland, in 1816.
Dohm, Christian Conrad Wilhelm von (1751–1820): Prussian diplomat, political historian. An accomplished and well-read pupil in school as a child, he first studied theology in Leizpig, then law and political science in Göttingen and Kassel, becoming particularly well acquainted with the imperial constitution. After a period as tutor to Prince Ferdinand in Berlin, in 1774 he resumed his university studies in Göttingen, where he was friends with Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, and Moses Mendelssohn. In 1776 he founded the art journal Teutsches Museum together with Heinrich Christian Boie, the latter editing the literary part, Dohm the historical-political part. Taught economics and finance at the Collegium Carolinum in Cassel 1776–79, then in 1779 entered Prussian civil service as a military and privy archivist, from 1783 (uncertain) as Geheimer Kriegsrat in the Prussian foreign ministry. Attended the congress in Rastatt and published an account the day after the murders there in the night of 28–29 April 1799, Authentischer Bericht von dem an der Französischen Friedensgesandtschaft bei ihrer Rückreise von dem Congress in der Nähe von Rastadt verübten Meuchelmord. Nebst einigen weiteren Actenstüken und Zusätzen des Herausgebers (n.p. 1799). His publication of Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden (1781), on the “civil improvement” of Jews, caused a considerable stir, a work in which he advocated equal rights for Jews, thereby providing the basis for the emancipation laws in France (1791) and Prussia (1812). From 1786 Prussian envoy to the prince elector in Cologne. In the spring of 1801 was assigned as Prussian administrator in Hannover overseeing the tense problem of provisioning of the Prussian troops of occupation.
Dohna, Alexander Friedrich Ferdinand, Count von (1771–1831): Eldest brother of Schleiermacher’s privately tutored pupils; Prussian statesman and politician; from 1790 an administrator in the war ministry in Berlin; 1808–10 Prussian minister of the interior. Schleiermacher worked as a private tutor at Dohna’s father’s estate from October 1790 till May 1793.
Döll, Friedrich Wilhelm (1750–1816): Court sculptor in Gotha. After five years of formal training in Fulda, undertook a journey to Paris and Rome (1770–73) at the behest of the later Duke Ernst von Gotha. After his return worked especially at the courts in Gotha, Anhalt-Dessau, and Meiningen. Became a member of the Berlin Academy in 1781, then was appointed head of the Gotha art collection. Works include a bust of Johann Joachim Winckelmann and the Gotthold Ephraim Lessing monument in the Wolfenbüttel library.
Döllinger, Ignaz Christoph (1770–1841): Physician, anatomist, physiologist. Studied medicine in Bamberg, Würzburg, Vienna, and Pavia, receiving his doctorate in 1794 in Bamberg, where he also worked as a physician to the poor before his appointment as professor of physiology and general pathology there in 1796. Colleague of Adalbert Friedrich Marcus. From 1797 married to Theresia, née Schuster, a native of Bamberg (1776–1838), with whom he had five sons and three daughters. From 1803 professor of physiology and anatomy in Würzburg, where he also established the Zootomical Physiological Society. The most important physician in Würzburg during Schelling and Caroline’s time there. From 1815 rector of the university in Würzburg. From 1823 conservator of the Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Munich, where he was appointed professor of anatomy and physiology in 1826 and head of the anatomical museum there. (Portrait: unknown artist; Bavarian Academy of Science and Humanities.)
Döllinger, Johann Joseph Ignaz von (1799–1890): Son of Ignaz Christoph Döllinger. Roman Catholic theologian and church historian, from 1823 in Aschaffenburg, from 1826 in Munich. Associated with 19th-century Catholic renewal, from 1860 opponent of the church’s doctrine of the state and doctrine of infallibility, 1871 excommunicated.
Domaratius (Domeratius), Johann Heinrich Samuel (1758–1841): Studied law in Jena while continuing to play the organ (he also played violin), which he had begun when he was seven. From 1786 academic music director in Jena, which unfortunately paid him very little. From 1795 full-time organist at the town church while continuing to teach music lessons. Although he also composed cantatas and organ pieces, he never published.
Döring, Friedrich Wilhelm (1756–1837): Director of the Gymnasium Illustre in Gotha. (Portrait by Emil Jacobs; copy courtesy of Pastor Rudolf W. L. Jacobs, Archiv der schleswig-thüringischen Familie Jacobs.)
Dörnberg, Wilhelm Kaspar von (1768–1850): Hessian military officer. From 1796 in Prussian service, serving in 1806 at the Battles of Jena and Auerstedt under General von Blücher, with whom he was taken prisoner after the debacle in Lübeck. After toying in England with the idea of organizing resistance against the French, he entered French service in the new Kingdom of Westphalia in 1808 and was appointed commander of a rifle battalion in Marburg, where he began planning an insurrection yet again with other Prussian officers. The quick developments of the French-Austrian war in 1809 forced him to begin sooner than expected, on 22 April 1809. The insurrection, which began in Homberg with a ragtag and ill-equipped band of farmers, proceeded toward Kassel and was quickly defeated. Dörnberg was sentenced to death in absentia, he having escaped to Bohemia, where he joined the “Black Corps” of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Oels, with whom he eventually fled to England. He returned to Germany and eventually served in the Russian army. (Portrait: Friedrich Neubauer, Preussens Fall und Erhebung 1806–1815 [Berlin 1908], 250.)
Dorsch, Anton Joseph (Friedrich Caspar) (1758–1819): Theologian, Catholic administrative official. Studied at the Catholic seminary in Mainz; after earning his doctorate in philosophy and being ordained, he studied philosophy in Paris and was thereafter appointed professor of philosophy in Mainz, also earning his doctorate in theology. From 1791 professor in Strassbourg and episcopal vicar, becoming increasingly attracted by revolutionary ideas. Left the priesthood and returned to Mainz in 1792, becoming a Clubbist and president of the French administration there. After the Prussians retook Mainz, forced to flee to Paris, where he worked as a diplomat and as an administrative official of the Roer département till 1798. From 1798 administrative official in Aachen and Cleve, from 1811 tax director in Münster, but had to flee to Paris anew in 1813 during the Wars of Liberation.
Drebing, Lisette Charlotte (Caroline spells it Trebbin) (1753–1809): Second wife of Ernst Gottfried Baldinger. Although Baldinger married Dorothea Friederike Gutbier in 1764 (1739–86), he seems to have had an affair with Lisette Drebing during part of his years in Göttingen while his first wife was still alive. After his first wife’s death in 1786, he invited Lisette Drebing into his house as a housekeeper, then married her on 8 June 1791, i.e., well after he had become a professor in Marburg.
Dubois de Crancé, Edmond-Louis-Alexis (1747–1814): Uncle of Jean-Baptiste Dubois-Crancé (the latter the father of Caroline’s second son). Initially a soldier, then elected to various governing bodies during the French Revolution, including the National Assembly, Constituent Assembly, and National Convention (from February 1793 its president). Implemented successful army reforms during the Revolution. Participated in the fall of Robespierre in 1794 and occupied other political positions during the 1790s, also opposing Napoleon’s coup in November 1799.
Dubois de Crancé, Jean-Baptiste (12 December 1773–25 April 1800): Father of Caroline’s second son, Wilhelm Julius Krantz (Böhmer) (Friedrich Schlegel will refer to him as “Gr.”). When Caroline met him, he was a lieutenant in the 91st Regiment in Mainz and adjutant to his uncle General François Ignace d’Oyré; he was a colonel in the 91st Regiment of Mounted Riflemen when killed in action in 1800 just after crossing the Rhine River at Kehl (there is no documentation attesting that Caroline was aware of his death); also the nephew of the influential French politician Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé. Jean-Baptiste seems to have married after returning to France following his incarceration after Mainz. His widow, Ursule Brigitte Marie, née Merlin (25 Septembre 1782 in Douai, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France—8 [or 5] March 1858 in Paris), remarried on 3 May 1801; her second husband was Alexandre Florent Joseph D’ Haubersart (22 January 1771—5 April 1855). — Evidence suggests Caroline’s relationship with him may have been more long-term than has previously been taken to be the case; see Friedrich Schlegel’s letter to Wilhelm Schlegel on 4–5 November 1793 (letter 136.1) with note 2 and its cross reference to letter 135cd. For more on Dubois-Crancé’s biography and military career, see the supplementary appendix on Jean-Baptiste Dubois-Crancé.
Duchenois (Duchesnois), Catherine Joséphine Rafuin (Rafin) (5 July 1777–8 January 1835): Extremely popular french actress, inspired at a young age by the actress Raucourt. Began acting at thirteen, from July 1802 with the Théâtre français in the character of Phédre, created the role of Marie Stuart (1820), starred in romantic dramas and revivals of the classics until she decided to quit for religious reasons around 1830. (Portrait: Harry R. Beard Collection, given by Isobel Beard; Museum number S.5132-2009.)
[Duchess of Orléans] Françoise Marie de Bourbon (1677–1749): Youngest legitimized daughter (fille légitimée de France) of Louis XIV. Known initially as the second Mademoiselle de Blois, then as Françoise Marie de Blois; she married her first cousin Philippe d’Orléans in 1692 at the age of fourteen, who allegedly gave her, then the Duchess of Orléans, the nickname Madame Lucifer — as reported in the memoirs of the Duke de Saint-Simon, excerpts of which then ended up in an anthology edited by Schiller, whence it then was applied (by Schiller or his wife or both) to Caroline.
Dugazon, Louise-Rosalie, née Lefebvre (1755–1821): French actress, singer and dancer (though born in Berlin, daughter of a French dancer and ballet director). Debuted 1769 with the Comédie Italienne, from 1776 wife of the actor Jean-Henri Gourgaud Dugazon, though the couple later separated. She became known simply as Madame Dugazon, her success being so complete that roles of young female love interests became known as “dugazons.” She was particularly successful in Nicolas Dalayrac’s play Nina, ou la Folle par amour (1786), in which she also played Nina in the premiere in 1786; later she tended to take the roles of older characters until 1804, when she retired (Napoleon attended her final performance). (Portrait: 1787 in the role of Nina; by either Antoine Vestier or Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun.)
[Duke of Orléans] Philippe (Charles ) d’Orléans (1674–1723): Nephew of Louis XIV of France who served as regent during the minority of Louis XV (1715–23). Married his first cousin, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, youngest legitimized daughter of Louis XIV, after whom Caroline likely received the epithet Madame Lucifer.
Dumouriez, Charles-François (1739–1823): Commander-in-chief of the French revolutionary armies who brought about the French victories in the autumn of 1792 at Valmy and Jemmapes; relieved of his command after defecting to the enemy in 1793.
Dupuytren, Guillaume (1777–1835): French physician, anatomist, military surgeon, one of the leading surgeons in France, popular teacher, admired for his skill in diagnoses, esp. for his innovative operation techniques; also an experimental physiologist and pathologist Treated Napoleon’s hemorrhoids, also described what later became known as Dupuytren’s contracture. Studied medicine in Paris, from 1803 assistant surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu, from 1811 professor of operative surgery, from 1814 surgeon-in-chief there.
Dürer, Albrecht (1471–1528): Nuremberg artist, produced paintings, woodcuttings, copper engravings, etchings, and drawings reflecting the apocalyptic spirit of his time, when famine, plague, and social and religious upheaval were common. His best-known engravings include Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in his Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514); prints include the Apocalypse (1498) and his two series on the passion of Christ (1498–1510; 1510–11).
Duroc, Géraud-Christophe Michel (1772–1813): Duke of Friuli, French general, had a military education and entered the army while still quite young. From 1797 captain, also attracting Napoleon’s attention with his courage. Became an aid-de-camp of Napoleon, serving in several campaigns. From 1800 general of brigade and governor of the Tuileries. After the battle of Marengo, Duroc was sent on various diplomatic missions to represent Napoleon’s interests in important negotiations, including those involving the King of Prussia, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Spanish crown, and the marriage of Eugène de Beauharnais to Princess Augusta of Bavaria, as attested by Caroline’s letter. In gratitude, Napoleon richly rewarded him with various favors, including raising him to the status of Duke of Friuli in 1808 and to the status of senator in 1813. Killed in action at Wurtzen on 22 May 1813.
Dyk (Dyck, Dik), Johann Gottfried (1750–1813): Leipzig bookseller and writer. Born into a bookseller’s family, studied in Leipzig and Wittenberg before taking over his father’s Leizpig company, which flourished under his direction. Also a writer, playwright, and translator himself; from 1783 also the editor of the literary periodical Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freyen Künste.